PROCESSES AND MACHINERY OF AGRO-ENGINEERING SYSTEMS
PARAMETERS AND MODES OF CLEANING WHEAT SEEDS FROM WILD OUT ON THE VIBROPNEUMOSEPARATOR WITH ADVANCED DECK (=PDF=)
© 2022. Vasily D. Galkin1*, Viktor A. Khandrikov2, Andrey F. Fedoseev3, Mikhail S. Nakaryakov4, Daria A. Shikhova5,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Perm State Agro-Technological University, Perm, Russia
Abstract. The experiments were carried out at the Department of Agricultural Machinery and Equipment of the Faculty of Engineering of the Perm State Agro-Technological University on an experimental set for studying the process of separation of components under the influence of vibration and air flow. In the experiments, wheat seeds of the 2021 harvest were used. The average values of the characteristics of seeds and impurities were: humidity – 13.8%, nature – 804 g/dm3, relative content of wild oat – 100 pieces/kg with nature 424 g/dm3. The purpose of the experiments was to determine the parameters and modes of operation of the vibropneumoseparator with an improved deck. To achieve the goal, a two-factor experiment was set up according to a three-level plan. During the experiments, we changed the mode of operation of the improved deck with a guide and the angle of its installation. The vibration frequency of the deck was changed by controlling the engine with a frequency controller in the range of 420-480 min-1. The speed of the sloping air flow was regulated by the shutter of the fan inlet window, and controlled by an anemometer within 1.0–1.1 m/s.
Key words: vibro-pneumatically fluidized bed, wheat seeds, wild oat, deck of improved design, modes.
COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF BIOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS AND MINERAL FERTILIZERS ON THE GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF SAREPTA MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA Czern.)(=PDF=)
© 2022. Gennady A. Vorobeykov1, Vitaly N. Lebedev2, Grigory A. Uraev3*,
1Russian State Pedagogical University named after A. I. Herzen, St. Petersburg, Russia,
2,3Petersburg State University of Communications of Emperor Aleksander I, St. Petersburg, Russia,
Abstract. The research was held in conditions of field experiments, the influence of pre-sowing inoculation and the introduction of increasing doses of mineral nitrogen on the growth processes and productivity of brown mustard (Brassica juncea Czern.) of the var. Start (k-4259). Morphometric parameters and productivity of dry mass were taken into account during the period of sloping ripeness – the phase of active flowering. Four bacterial preparations were used in the work: agrofil (Agrobacterium radiobacter, strain 10), mizorin (Arthrobacter mysorens, strain 7), mobilin (Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain PG-5) and flavobacterin (Flavobacterium sp., strain 30). From mineral doses of nitrogen, nitrogen norms from N30 to N120 were applied against the background of PK at the rate of 60 kg/ha. The results of the conducted studies have shown the stimulating effect of bacterial preparations and the introduction of increasing doses of mineral nitrogen on plants. The best result is provided when using fertilizers, by the norm N120P60K60. The most effective rhizobacterial strains were Flavobacterium sp., str. 30 and Pseudomonas fluorescens, str. PG-5. The data obtained roughly corresponded to nitrogen deposition at the N90 and N120 levels. The highest productivity of the dry mass of aboveground organs was formed in the experiment with the use of mineral fertilizers.
Key words: associative rhizobacteria, inoculation, brown mustard, nitrogen fertilizers, increasing doses of nitrogen, productivity, dry weight, economic effect.
INCREASING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF SPRING DURUM WHEAT WHEN USING THE ENDOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGUS GLOMUS INTRARADICES IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE DRY-STEPPE ZONE OF THE PRIURAL AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN (=PDF=)
© 2022. Rashit Sh. Dzhaparov1*, Akylbek M. Nurgaliev2, Zhanar M Gumarova3,
1, 2, 3West Kazakhstan Agrarian and Technical University named after Zhangir Khan, Uralsk,
West Kazakhstan region, Republic of Kazakhstan
Abstract. In the conditions of the dry steppe of the Urals, in a two-factor field experiment, studies were carried out to study the effect of inoculation of spring wheat seeds with a strain of the endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. Factor A – varieties of spring durum wheat (zoned Svetlana and promising Kargala 9). Factor B – the use of phosphate fertilizer at a dose of 20 and 40 kg a.i./ha (P20 and P40) separately and against the background of the endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices (AM). The use of AM made it possible to increase the grain yield of both wheat varieties relative to the control by 10-12%, according to the P20 background by 29-30% and according to the P40 background by 25-34%. With the combined use of AM + P40 for both varieties of wheat, an increase in indicators characterizing the abundance of vesicles in the root (B) by 0.7 … 0.9% and the abundance of vesicles in the mycorrhized part of the root (b) by 3.8 … 6.2% was observed.
Key words: arbuscular mycorrhiza, phosphorus fertilizer, spring durum wheat, grain yield, mycorrhiza indicators, symbiotic efficiency, dry steppe zone.
EXPERIENCE OF CULTIVATION OF IPOMOEA BATATAS (L.) UNDER CONDITIONS OF LIMITED THERMAL RESOURCES (=PDF=)
© 2022. Dmitry A. Zorin1*, Alexandr V. Fedorov2,
1, 2 Udmurt Federal Research Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Udmurt Republic, Izhevsk, Russia
Abstract. One of the important issues of crop production in the context of global warming is the introduction of vegetable plants. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) is a promising vegetable crop for introduction under climate change conditions. Analysis of temperature data from the Izhevsk weather station showed a steady increase in the average annual and average temperature for April-September, which is a significant factor for the cultivation of heat-loving plants like sweet potato – an annual crop – in the Middle Urals. The purpose of our research was to study the growth, development and productivity of sweet potato in the collection of the Department of Introduction and Acclimatization of the UdmFRC, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The sample of sweet potato Liubitelskii acted as the object of research. Studies of temperature influence on the productivity of sweet potato were carried out for a number of years on the territory of the Udmurt Republic in two agro-climatic regions. The possibility of cultivating sweet potato in order to obtain marketable tubers in conditions of limited thermal resources has been proved. A close relationship between productivity and the sum of active and effective temperatures has been revealed. The strongest dependence was found on the sum of effective temperatures above 15 °C (correlation coefficient 0.93).
Key words: sweet potato, introduction, yield, productivity, small-plot experience, sum of active temperatures, sum of effective temperatures.
AGROMETEOROLOGICAL FACTORS OF THE FORMATION OF A WEED COMPONENT IN THE VETCH-SPRING WHEAT AGROCENOSIS IN THE MIDDLE PREDURALIE (=PDF=)
Yuri N. Zubarev1, Denis S. Fomin2, Tatiana V. Novikova3,
1,3Perm State Agro-Technological University, Perm, Russia,
2,3Perm Research Institute of Agriculture, a branch of the Perm Federal Research Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Abstract. Today, more and more agro-industrial enterprises are switching to a digital format of work, in connection with this, there are more and more programs and products for implementation in agricultural technologies. True, for the full implementation of these products, it is necessary to develop a clear and well-established methodology for using these technologies, taking into account all aspects (weather, agrochemical indicators, the needs of agricultural plants, etc.). The article presents the agrometeorological characteristics for 2020 when oats of the Stayer variety were sown and for 2021 – a vetch-wheat mixture (Mega vetch and spring wheat Kamenka). The studies were carried out on the scientific and experimental field of the Perm Research Institute of Agriculture, a branch of the PFRC, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The soil of the experimental plot is sod-podzolic heavy loamy. Weather conditions during the study period were unstable, which greatly affected the yield of field crops. According to the results of soil studies for agrochemical properties using Earth remote sensing (ERS) data, fertilizers were applied to the soil in a differentiated way, a decrease in the dose of nitrogen by 4 kg/ha and potassium by 41 kg/ha in a.i. mineral fertilizers with differentiated application in comparison with the average recommended dose of N15P60K60. When using differential herbicide spraying (based on EPV), a decrease in herbicide consumption in 2020 by 19% and in 2021 by 45% was found compared to the continuous spraying method. The yield of the vetch-wheat mixture in 2021, using a differentiated herbicide spraying technology, reached 1.35 t/ha.
Key words: differential application, fertilizers, herbicide, vetch-wheat mixture, oats, weeds, weather conditions.
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DOSES OF MINERAL FERTILIZERS ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF EARLY POTATOES IN WEST KAZAKHSTAN REGION (=PDF=)
© 2022. Mendigul K. Kuanaliyeva1, Laila T. Kaliyeva2, Rinat S. Sarsengaliyev3*,
1,2,3West Kazakhstan Agrarian Technical University named after Zhangir Khan,
Uralsk, Republic of Kazakhstan,
Abstract. This article shows the results of the effectiveness of using various doses of mineral fertilizers that affect the yield of early potatoes in the conditions of the West Kazakhstan region. The growth and yield of potatoes is affected not only by the removal of nutrients, but also by their ratio in the soil. In the version with the introduction of N60P120K60, a large removal of nutrients per unit area was noted. At summer consumption, an average of 71 kg of nitrogen, 17.4 kg of phosphorus and 121 kg of potassium over three years were absorbed to produce 100 kg of potatoes. Dark chestnut soils are very low provided with mobile phosphorus and with the timely introduction of phosphorus fertilizers, their effectiveness is highly manifested in the conditions of the West Kazakhstan region. Taking into account local natural and climatic conditions, a high potato yield can be obtained by introducing fertilizers with a balanced ratio of nutrients. Studies have shown that the percentage of nutritional elements in the organs of the potato plant varies. High levels of nitrogen and phosphorus were observed in the leaves and potassium in the stems. In a variant with the introduction of nitrogen-potassium fertilizers, the smallest accumulation of starch per unit area was obtained, which is associated with a decrease in the yield of potatoes. The use of mineral fertilizers for dark chestnut soils of the West Kazakhstan region affected the vegetative growth and productivity of early potatoes and the best results in the studies were obtained when N, P, K were introduced in a ratio of 1:2:1 and 1: 1.5: 1.
Key words: early potatoes, mineral fertilizers, crop, quality of tubers, removal of food elements, NPK, dose ratio, starch, culinary qualities.
EFFECTIVENESS OF THE USE OF GROWTH REGULATORS FROM THE CHALCONES GROUP AGAINST DISEASES OF SPRING GRAIN CROPS IN PREDURALIE (=PDF=)
© 2022. Irina N. Medvedeva1, Sergey V. Chirkov2*, Zhanna A. Upilkova3,
1,2,3 Perm State Agro-Technological University, Perm, Russia,
Abstract. The paper describes the results of studying the methods of protecting spring cereals (wheat and barley) from the most harmful diseases – fungus etiology in the Middle Preduralie based on the three-year (2017-2019) studies conducted at the FGBOU HE Perm State Agro-Technological University by scientists of two departments – General Chemistry and General Agriculture and Plant Protection. The aim of the work was to develop methods of protection against common root rot and helminthosporiasis of spring grain wheat and barley using growth regulators permitted in the Russian Federation and new preparations from the chalcone group as an alternative to the use of more toxic systemic fungicides and, as a result, reducing the environmental load in agrophytocenosis. The results of the studies showed that the tested chalcones MBAF, R and BBAF, R were not inferior in effectiveness to the permitted ones (Zircon, R and Epin-Extra, R) and even surpassed in some indicators, such as increased resistance to diseases (prevalence and development). Field germination of both wheat and barley was higher when treated with chalcones – 78.2% and 77.3%, respectively. The development of common root rot on spring wheat below the level of EPV ensured dressing with Zircon, R, chalcones MBAF, R and BBAF, R, respectively, 9.9%, 9.6% and 9.4% during the tillering period. On spring barley, the variant with the use of chalcone MBAF, R was the most effective: the development of striped spotting during the heading period was minimal – 1.33%. During the period of the pasty state, all preparations significantly reduced the development of striped spotting on spring barley, on wheat – only chalcones, using presowing treatment. The biological effectiveness of the use of preparations by the dressing method was higher in all in relation to the spraying method. On both grain crops, the chalcone BBAF, R (76.4% and 76.0%), applied by the dressing method, provided the highest biological effectiveness. Both chalcones, applied by the dressing method, provided a significant increase in the yield of spring grain crops in all the years of the study.
Key words: wheat, barley, root rot, fungicides, growth regulators, yield, pesticides, prevalence and development of diseases.
INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC AND MINERAL FERTILIZERS ON THE CARBON OF ORGANIC MATTER IN SOD-PODZOLIC MEDIUM LOAMY SOIL (=PDF=)
© 2022. Maria I. Pinaeva1*, Yulia A. Akmanaeva2
1, 2 Perm State Agro-Technological University, Perm, Russia
Abstract. The article presents the results of a multifactorial field experiment, which studied the effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on the content of total (Corg) and labile carbon (CLOM) of organic matter in soddy-podzolic medium loamy soil, when cultivating crops in different pairs. The research was carried out on the educational and scientific experimental field of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education of the Perm State Agro-Technological University in the grain fallow link of the crop rotation (1. fallow (green manure and clean); 2. winter rye; 3. spring wheat with clover undersowing). A significant increase in the content of organic carbon by 0.28% (НСР05 = 0.13%) resulted in the cultivation of crops on bare fallow. The application of mineral fertilizers at a dose of NPK of 60 kg/ha increased the total Corg content by 0.22%. The maximum accumulation of total Corg – 2.18% was noted with the combined application of straw and mineral fertilizers in the link with pure fallow. The most favorable conditions for the accumulation of carbon of labile organic matter in sod-podzolic medium loamy soil were formed in the crop rotation link with bare fallow in the variant with the introduction of average recommended doses together with straw plowing.
Key words: type of fallow, sod-podzolic medium loamy soil, straw, carbon of labile organic matter.
THE INFLUENCE OF METHODS OF PREPARING CROPS FOR HARVESTING ON THE YIELD OF SPRING RAPESEED VARIETIES IN THE MIDDLE PREDURALIE (=PDF=)
© 2022. Olga A. Rudometova1, Anastasia S. Bogatyreva2, Elmart D. Akmanaev3*,
1,2,3Perm State Agro-Technological University, Perm, Russia
Abstract. The article presents data from two-year studies, the purpose of which was to study the effect of desiccation and treatment of crops with adhesive substances with desiccants and adhesives on the yield of spring rapeseed in the Middle Preduralie. In 2020-2021 on the basis of the educational and scientific experimental field of FSBEI HE Perm SATU, a field two-factor experiment was laid down. The soil of the experimental site is sod-podzolic medium-loamy. On average, over the years of research, the actual and biological yield of spring rape oilseeds was the same. When analyzing the yield structure, it was revealed that the greatest density of the stem was formed in the agrocenoses of the foreign Smilla hybrid (80 pcs/m2), while the domestic variety Ratnik had a higher productivity of one plant (4.02 g). In studies, a varietal reaction to the use of desiccants and adhesives in Ratnik variety was revealed. Smilla hybrid did not respond to techniques for preparing crops for harvesting.
Key words: spring rape, oil seed, desiccation, adhesives, structure of yield, treatment of crops.
INFLUENCE OF LIQUID FERTILIZERS ON THE NUTRIENTS DISTRIBUTION DYNAMICS IN A PLANT (=PDF=)
Sergei A. Fokin,
Far East State Agrarian University, Blagoveshchensk, Russia
Abstract. Among the methods of applying fertilizers, spraying of vegetative plants has recently acquired a special role, the effectiveness of which on soybeans is quite high. In this regard, the goal was set to study the effect of liquid fertilizers on the dynamics of the distribution of the main nutrients in the vegetative organs of a plant. The studies were carried out in 2018-2020 in the southern part of the Amur region. As a result of the research, it was found that in the initial period of vegetation, the phase of the third trifoliate leaf, the maximum content of total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the leaves and stems was noted in the variants with the use of Nertus Start in seed treatment; in the budding phase, the maximum content of total nitrogen and potassium in the leaves and stems is observed in the variants with the use of seed treatment before sowing Nertus Start and Nertus Bor in the form of spraying in the budding phase, total phosphorus in the leaves was determined in the variant with the combined use of all studied fertilizers, in the stems in the variant with seed treatment before sowing Nertus Start, in the phase of bean formation, the highest value of total nitrogen in leaves and stems is observed in the variant with the use of Nertus Start when processing seeds and Nertus Photosynthesis during vegetation, total phosphorus is observed in the variant with the use of Nertus Bor (in the budding phase) and total potassium in leaves is observed in the variant with using Nertus Start (seed treatment), and in the stems using Nertus Photosynthesis + Nertus Bor (in the budding phase). Thus, when using liquid fertilizers, their influence on the distribution of the main nutrients in the plant in various phases of growth and development of the soybean plant was noted.
Key words: soybeans, top dressing, liquid fertilizer, Nertus Photosynthesis, Nertus Start, Nertus Bor, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium.
INFLUENCE OF BASIC SOIL TREATMENT AFTER RAPS PRECURSOR AND CHEMICAL MEANS ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF SPRING WHEAT GRAIN IN FOREST-STEPPE OF OMSK REGION (=PDF=)
© 2022. Leonid V. Yushkevich1, Aleksander G. Shchitov2, Denis N. Yushchenko3*
1, 2, 3 Omsk Agricultural Research Center, Omsk, Russia
Abstract. Methods of tillage, means of chemicalization affect the fertility of soils in the southern forest-steppe of Western Siberia. In this regard, the phytosanitary state is changing, which positively affects the productivity of spring wheat in the crop rotation after rape cultivation. An increase in permanent wheat crops up to 30-40% contributes to a decrease in soil fertility as a result of a deterioration in the phytosanitary state of crops and their productivity. The area sown with spring wheat in the region is 73% of grain crops, of which the steppe and southern forest-steppe zones account for up to 80-90%. Its yield is relatively low (1.50-1.70 t/ha), which is due to the arid climate (350-420 mm of precipitation), lack of fertilizers (10-15 kg/ha), and violation of agricultural technologies. Taking into account the exactingness of the culture to its predecessors, it should be placed in pairs, legumes, winter, legumes, row crops. In the absence of a fallow field in the crop rotation, the yield and quality parameters of grain depended on the tillage system in the crop rotation and the use of intensification means. After the rapeseed predecessor, intensive technology contributes to the accumulation of water resources, nitrate accumulation, an increase in crop biomass by 1.8 times, a decrease in weed infestation of agrophytocenosis (up to 7.4%), suppression of leaf-stem infections (0.4 – 4.7%), and an increase in the yield of high-quality grain up to 2.88 t/ha.
Key words: basic processing, chemicalization, rapeseed predecessor, grain yield and quality.
VETERINARY AND ZOOTECHNY
EVALUATION OF BULLS-PRODUCERS BY ORIGIN IN THE UDMURT REPUBLIC (=PDF=)
© 2022. Raushania R. Zakirova1*, Alexey P. Yamschikov2, Galina Y. Berezkina3,
1Udmurt State University, Russia, Izhevsk
2, 3 Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy, Russia, Izhevsk
Abstract. The article evaluates bulls-producers of domestic and imported selection of black-and-white breeds by milk productivity per lactation. And also assessed the chemical composition of milk in «Mozhgaplem OOO» in the Udmurt Republic. Bulls of domestic selection were divided into 4 groups: Moscow, Leningrad, Novosibirsk and Udmurt; foreign selection – German, Dutch and Czech. The milk productivity of bull mothers in the Moscow selection was 10638 kg. At the same time, in this selection, the fat and protein content was 4.35% and 3.51%, respectively. In the Leningrad selection, the productivity of the mothers of bull-producers was on average at the level of 13134 kg, with a fat content in milk of 4.17% and protein content of 3.26%. In Novosibirsk selection, the productivity of mothers was at the level of 13828 kg. At the level of 10850 kg was the milk productivity of the mothers of bull producers in the Udmurt selection. At the same time, the fat content in milk was in this selection – 4.17%, and protein – 3.24%. The fat content in German breeding was 4.46%, protein 3.35% with an average productivity of 13184 kg. The average milk productivity in the Dutch selection of the mother of bull producers was 16359 kg. Milk productivity in Czech breeding was 13866 kg with a fat and protein content of 3.90% and 3.30%. When calculating, the parental index of the bull in the domestic selection was 12100 kg for milk yield, 4.05% for fat and 3.25% for protein. As to imported selection, the parental index of the bull by milk yield was 13839 kg, in fat it was 4.10% and protein – 3.29%.
Key words: bulls, breeding, dairy production, parental bull index.
EVALUATION OF REPRODUCTIVE QUALITIES OF BREEDING BOARS AND SOWS (=PDF=)
© 2022. Ekaterina K. Pankova,
Perm State Agro-Technological University, Perm, Russia,
Abstract. For most pig-breeding enterprises engaged in pig breeding and interbreeding, an important task is to choose a breed and a variant of crossing. The effect of crossing may depend on the compatibility of breeds, the quality of mated animals, production technologies, which affects the multiplicity, large size of fetuses and safety of livestock. Studies have shown that the largest volume of ejaculate was obtained from boars of the Landrace breed 242 ml, boars of the Duroc pore were distinguished by a high concentration of sperm – 232 million in 1 ml. The assessment of the productive qualities of sows showed that the sows of the 2 KB × L group were distinguished by the highest fertility – 11 heads in the nest, the weight of piglets at weaning – 8.1 kg, the average daily growth of offspring – 221 grams and the safety of livestock – 91.5%.
Key words: breed, large white, landrace, duroc, multiple fertility, large fetus, average daily growth, preservation, sows, boars, ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, sperm activity.
EVALUATION OF MARES OF THE TRAKENE BREED ON EXTERIOR, SPORTS AND REPRODUCTION QUALITIES (=PDF=)
© 2022. Valentina I. Polkovnikova1, Ekaterina M. Bachurina2*,
1, 2 Perm State Agro-Technological University, Perm, Russia
Abstract. Factory breeds of horses are bred by the purebred method, which includes breeding by lines and families. Breeding by lines is the basis of zootechnical work with the breed, which includes the selection and choice of the best representatives of the line, planned for the transfer of valuable innate qualities of the ancestor and their offspring. Brood families play an important role in the development of the breed and breeding work in general. The basis of the reproductive qualities of horses is the preparation of mares for the breeding campaign, which includes drawing up a plan with the selection of mares for stallions, preparing stallions and mares for mating. The main indicator of the success of the breeding campaign is the percentage of fertilization, determined by the number of foaled mares per 100 covered. The research was carried out in the farm «Shasherin N.D.». Perm Krai, which is engaged in breeding Trakenen breed of horses. The farm has a total of 33 mares, 15 of them are young, 8 breeding stallions have an excellent genetic basis, and therefore they are a good breeding material for the selection and reproduction of offspring. Basically, the breeding stock, which is 60%, belongs to the Fatme family, which is one of the oldest, dates back to 1784, carries good reproductive abilities of mares and high quality of the offspring obtained, 35.7% of mares belong to the Haleb and Kyivitt families. The fertilization of the uterine composition in the farm was 88.0%, the percentage of successful foaling from the number of covered queens was 81.5% of the number of foaled 92.5%.
Key words: mares, breeding stallions, Traken breed, line, family, size, physique index, fertility, successful foal.