pp. 3-11


E.D. Akmanaev, Cand.Agr.Sci., Associate Professor;
I.S. Peshina, Post-Graduate Student,
Perm State Agricultural Academy, Perm, Russia

ABSTRACT Favorable climatic conditions of non-chernozem area determine significant duration of the possible vegetation period of plants. Fields are often empty for two months or more after harvesting grain and other crops with early maturation. To use arable land more rational it is needed to use empty fields for sowing of intermediate crops. It will increase arable land ratio by 1.5-2 times, forage production and improve its quality. Winter rye is mainly used as intermediate crop in Permskii krai, but the interest of the regional economies in winter triticale began to grow in recent years. We established the experiment in the experimental field of the Perm State Agricultural Academy to develop the elements of technology of spring rape cultivation in intermediate crops with different winter crops on sod-podzolic soils of the Middle Preduralie in 2011-2014. Three years of studies revealed no differences in the yield capacity of winter crops. It was established it is better to cultivate both cultures for grain haylage. Their yield capacity was 5.50 t/ha. In average for 3 years the maximum yield of spring rape was obtained in variants after winter rye — 1.57 t/ha. Post-cut sowing of rape after winter crop harvesting for green mass excels other types of intermediate sowing in yield capacity. Increasing the seeding rate from 2 to 4 million of germinating seeds per 1 hectare was accompanied by an increase in yield capacity of spring rape. The highest yield capacity was obtained at seeding rate from 4 to 6 million of germinating seeds per 1 hectare. It was established that main crop has the same effect on the productivity of link winter crop — spring rape. Output of feed units from 1 ha with the participation of winter crops was 3.93-4.07 thousands of feed units. While comparison of type of intermediate sowing of spring rape the highest productivity was obtained in the variant of post-cut sowing harvested for grain haylage. This productivity was 4.86 thousands of feed units/ha.
Key words: winter triticale, winter rye, spring rape, intermediate crop, productivity, seeding rate.

pp. 11-16


V.G. Vlasov, Cand. Agr. Sci.,
L.G. Zakharova, Researcher.
Ulianovsk Scientific and Research Institute of Agriculture
Institutskaia 19 settlement Timiriazevskii Ulianovskaia oblast, Russia, 433315

This article presents the results of study on the effects of forecrops, tillage methods and fertilizers on yield capacity and economic efficiency of cultivation of new oat varieties Concur and Derbi recommended for cultivation in seven and two regions of the Russian Federation, respectively. The high efficiency of leguminous forecrop while cultivation of varieties under the study widely used in the production was shown. The reasonability of research was justified in the introduction on the base of published data analysis. The questions of the significance of evidence-based crop rotations in agricultural production, of the efficiency of leguminous forecrops, of forecrop selection history for oat cultivation in the Ulyanovskaia oblast were covered. The data on the proportion of leguminous in cropping patterns of the region, on the yield capacity of oat in the Ulyanovskaia oblast for last five years were presented. Agronomic and economic evaluation of forecrops with different variants of tillage and fertilizing were shown. It was found that yield capacity while cultivation of oat varieties after pea without fertilizing with shallow basic tillage increased up to 27-29%, with plowing – up to 20-22% in comparison with spring wheat sowing. And yield capacity while cultivation of oat varieties after pea with fertilizing with shallow basic tillage increased up to 17-20%, with plowing – up to 2-3% in comparison with spring wheat sowing. The best economic indicators of variety under study were obtained while cultivation after pea without fertilizing with shallow tillage. Net profit of varieties under study increased up to 36-38% and cost price decreased up to 31-33% in comparison with variant of cultivation on fertilized soil after shallow tillage after spring wheat and in comparison with the same variant after plowing up to 17-19% and 27-29%, respectively.
Key words: oat, forecrop, yield capacity, net profit, cost price.

pp. 16-21


S.L. Eliseev, Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor,
N.N. Iarkova, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor,
I.V. Batueva, Post-Graduate Student,
Perm State Agricultural Academy,
Petropavlovskaia, 23 Perm, Russia, 614990

Using seed carry-over stocks usually provides increase in grain yield capacity of winter grain crops. This is due to the fact that freshly-harvested seeds not passed through post-harvest ripening have low laboratory germination and germinative energy. If we know the duration of post-harvest ripening period of seeds, it will be possible to evaluate the possibility of using them for sowing in a particular region. This analysis was carried out on the example of Srednee Preduralie. The duration of post-harvest ripening period of winter grain crop seeds was established in the field experiment. Winter rye had the duration of this period 6-17 days, winter wheat — 19-32 days, winter triticale — 14-29 days. In winter rye in contrast to winter wheat and winter triticale in the year with high amount of rainfall duration of post-harvest ripening period is reduced, and when there was a delay in the harvest seed ripening ended later than at the optimum harvesting time. Analysis of obtained data shows that in the Preduralie optimal and late date of sowing of winter crops depends on the area and the heat provision in September. They vary for winter rye from 1 August to 30 August, for winter wheat and winter triticale with a tendency 5 days later.
Forecast of the guaranteed possibility of using freshly-harvested seeds of winter crops in the Permskii krai, taking into account the most unfavorable combination of factors (the maximum duration of post-harvest ripening and the average daily temperature in September no more than 100C), showed that it is possible in Vereshchaginskii, Nytvenskii, Krasnokamskii, Permskii, Kungurskii, Berezovskii and other districts which are located to the south of these ones. Harvesting date of winter grain crops is criterion for the possibility of using freshly-harvested seeds. For winter rye it is not later than 30, July, for winter wheat — not later than 19, July, for winter triticale — not later than 22, July.
Key words: winter rye, winter wheat, winter triticale, post-harvest ripening, freshly-harvested seeds.


pp. 22-26


V.S. Koshman, Cand. Eng. Sci., Associate Professor
Perm State Agricultural Academy, Perm, Russia,
113, G.Khasana st., Perm, 614025,Russia,

When designing structures for agricultural purposes operating under thermal loading, it is necessary to know the temperature dependence of thermophysical properties. They along with the external conditions are responsible for the formation of temperature fields in the interior of selected materials. At present, the theory of solids has not been developed enough to carry out a quantitative calculation of thermal properties of structural materials. There are no objective criteria of truth accruing to them experimental data. In this regard, in the search for empirical regularities of change of thermophysical properties with increasing temperature are of particular interest are simple solids — chemical elements in the periodic system.
This paper considers the complex thermal properties K=λ1/3cpρ, which is a function of the thermal conductivity λ,specific heat cp,density ρ substances and temperature Т. The results within an empirical approach to the study of matter show that the temperature dependences of the above-mentioned macroparameters are interrelated. By differentiating the function of temperature, an equation is obtained, which allows us to find the value of the temperature parameter β=dK/dT through changes in the value of the relative parameters. On the basis of experimental data it is found that at temperatures above the Debye value, complex thermophysical properties of К series of mono- and polycrystalline samples with increasing temperature increase according to the law of straight line, the magnitude of the temperature parameter β for each individual simple solid. For a fragment of elements in the periodic system a correlation has been educed between the temperature parameter β and the generic parameter tgα system of unpolarized ionic radii by E.V.Prikhodko. The latter indicates the relationship of the temperature parameter β with the peculiarities of the electronic structure determined by the position of elements in the periodic system.
Key words: coefficient of thermal conductivity, specific heat, density, thermal properties of complex, mono- and poly-crystals, temperature dependence of complex thermo-physical properties.


pp. 27-32


A.E. Babina – Junior Researcher,
Dzhumaniiazova G. I. – Dr. Biol. Sci.,
Kh.S. Narbaeva – Senior Researcher.
A. Kadiri ,7b, Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent,

The scientists start to define more and more often salting as a factor limiting the productivity of agricultural crops. The suffering of plants because of salting has a complex character. Because of salting the activity of nucleic acids reduces, the nitrogen metabolism is destroyed and it causes protein breakdown, the protein synthesis is eliminated which is related to the disorder of synthesis processes and hormonal balance of roots. The problem of increasing saline unsuitable for agriculture soils is dramatically topical for whole the Republic of Uzbekistan. The influence of a new biopreparation RIZOKOM- 1 on the dynamics of microflora of washed and unwashed soils and productivity of cotton plants on saline soils were studied in a comparative perspective. It was revealed that the exclusion of flushing saline soils helps to stabilization of the overall content of humus, potassium and phosphorus. It was observed that there were increasing of the content of available forms of nutrients to plant nutrition on the background of application of the biopreparation RIZOKOM-1and increasing the yield capacity of cotton up to 5 c/ha (on washed soils) and 7 c/ha (on unwashed soils) on the background of complete fertilizer application.
Key words: saline soils, biopreparation, soil fertility, cotton plant, yield capacity.

pp. 32-43


A.G. Guliev, Professor,
Nakhchivan State University,
Campus, AZ7012, Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan Republic
I.A. Samofalova, Associate Professor, N.M. Mudrykh, Associate Professor,
Perm State Agricultural Academy,
Petropavlovskaia st., 23, Perm, 614990, Russia,

In the region located in the arid and semiarid zones there are many problems related to irrigation and land reclamation. Irrigated agriculture is the foundation of agriculture in arid and semiarid region (Russia (Povolzhie), Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan). Poor water management of irrigation systems creates many problems that degrade soil fertility and land quality, contributing to environmental problems that lead to salinization and pollution of irrigated soils, groundwater and water sources. The article deals with the sources of secondary salinization, which can be roughly grouped into three major groups: natural, natural and anthropogenic, anthropogenic. Thus, soil salinity can be considered, on the one hand, as the process which has natural causes and conditions of origin, on the other hand, as a result of anthropogenic impacts in irrigated agriculture. Salinization is progressing with human intervention in natural agrogenic ecosystems that, in turn, contributes to the emergence of new problems related to salinity. One of the most serious environmental problems of Povolzhie, Kazakhstan and the Central Asian republics became the depletion of water resources, which led to an environmental disaster of the Aral Sea. According to archaeological data, salinization caused the decline or move of an entire civilization. This raises the question of the regulation of the negative soil processes, and, above all, salinity, as this problem is difficult to regulate in irrigated agriculture, which history of Central Asia has more than 8 thousand years. To solve global environmental problems the concerted actions of leaders of the republics and states are required, as well as uniform requirements and conditions for the use of soils in irrigated agriculture, their restoration and rehabilitation.
Key words: salinity, ecology, irrigation, soil, ground water.

pp. 44-50


A.P. Makarova, Cand. Bio. Sci., Associate Professor,
A.A. Kozlova, Cand.Bio.Sci., Associate Professor
Irkutsk State University
Suhe-Batora st., 5, Irkutsk, Russia, 664003,

The article examines the impact of Paleo cryogenic phenomena in the form of hilly-hollow microrelief forms on soil and microbiological properties. Morphologically, it is similar to the hills and cavities, round and oval-shaped with a diameter of 5 to 20 m, and the excess over cavities of 0.5 to 3 m. The beginning of the formation of the microrelief is attributed to the late Pleistocene, when, during a cold snap the formation of cracking filled with ice and blocks happened. With global warming on the place of melted ice or frost the pseudomorphs wedges were formed, which subsequently became hollows. Hills are formed the places of polygon. Hilly-hollow microrelief promotes differentiation of soil-forming processes in the soil profile and the significant differences in their morphology and properties. Studies have shown that the profile and properties of the virgin soil of the hills and the hollows have clear differences, which primarily consist of non-uniform thickness of the humus horizon and humus content and moisture, which were maximal in soils of depressions. During the agricultural use there was simplifying of the soil morphology. This, on the one hand, led to the convergence of such properties as the environment reaction, moisture the soil density, which is associated with the surface leveling during tillage operations. On the other hand, it led to strengthening of their differences in the content of humus and total nitrogen. In this case, the number turned out to be significantly lower than in virgin soil, which indicates a decline in potential fertility of these soils in the development process, but also due to the higher microbial activity caused by their superior warming. With the development of these soils there is a significant transformation that is saved for a long time during their change into steam mode.
Key words: paleocryogenesis, hillocky topography, soil and microbiological properties, virgin and fallow gray forest soils.

pp. 51-56


O.A. Skriabina, Cand.Agr.Sci.,
Perm State Agricultural Academy,
Petropavlovskaia st., 23, Perm, 614990, Russia,
I.S. Botalov, agronomist,
Agricultural production cooperative: Zaria budushchego Collective farm,
Sovetskaia st., 10, v. Iusva, Perm, 61619170, Russia,

While searching for optimal solutions to reduce the non-uniformity of the harvest in the scale of the agricultural field and cost savings at the same time it is necessary to consider the variability of indicators of topsoil, which gives an opportunity to highlight the contours of favorable or unfavorable agrophysical situation. Taking into account the agrophysical soil properties is required to optimize the management of crop growth. However, while the soil-mapping work they are paid much less attention than chemical properties. For the first time for the northwestern territory of Permskii krai the indicators of not only common physical, but also of water and physical (wilting point, the lowest moisture content, moisture discontinuity of capillary), air properties of soil of heavy granulometric composition are given. The analytical indicators of agrophysical properties that are the least studied for the field of research are given. The results of the determination of density show the tendency for anthropogenic soil compaction under the influence of agricultural equipment.Water and physical properties are characterized by such indicators as maximum hygroscopicity, wilting point, the lowest moisture content, moisture of capillary break ties. The information of the latter two constants is limited or non-existent for the northwestern part of Permskii krai. Meanwhile, it is of great practical importance, since it allows evaluating differentially the water regime of crops on genetically different soils during the growing season.To characterize the air regime of soil air intensity indicators are provided. It is shown that one of the major factors of soil degradation is erosion process. Therefore, traditionally assigned to the most fertile, but highly-eroded lithogenic soils according to the complex of agrophysical properties are inferior to zonal sod-podzolic soils on more aligned relief elements.
Key words: density, coefficient of structure, total porosity, range of available moisture, air intensity.


pp. 57-61


V.I. Maksimov, Dr. Biol. Sci., Professor,
Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology,
I.N. Staroverova, Dr. Biol. Sci., Professor,
Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology,
O.Iu. Bespyatykh, Cand. Bio. Sci., Associate Professor,
Vyatka State University of Humanities,

For the growth of fur-bearing animals, it is important to know the patterns of mineral metabolism skin and hair in postanal ontogeny. Therefore, the aim of the work was to study the age characteristics of mineral metabolism in the scalp mink on the basis of patterns of change in the coefficient of absorption of biological macro- and micronutrients, entering the blood and hair of animals’ diets in different phases of postnatal ontogenesis. In blood and hair biosubstrate in healthy and standard colour mink of all ages and diet we determined macro- and micronutrients: K, Ca, Mg, Na, P, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Se, Zn by atomic emission and mass — spectrometry instruments Optima-2000 and DM ELAN-9000 (Perkin-Elmer, the USA). It is shown that the coefficients of biological absorption of macro- and micronutrients coming from the diet into the blood and hair, change with age and have a certain value for each phase of postnatal ontogenesis. For the majority of macro- and micronutrients, maximum ratios were observed in the most intense phase of growth and development of all organs and tissues of minks of standard colour up to 3 months of age, and during the formation of primary and secondary hairline. After that the rapid development of animals was followed by a period of slower growth, characterized by minimum values of the coefficient of absorption of biological macro- and micronutrients. It corresponds to the phase of puberty and mature body. Then, the skin goes into a state of rest, which is observed in the mature phase of the body, and at the beginning of the spring molt. It is found that the mineral composition of the diet and mineral compositions hair in standard colour mink are associated with each other. Therefore, the mineral composition of hair can be used as a test for the diet balance on mineral elements for standard colour mink of a certain age.
Key words: mineral metabolism, skin and scalp, blood, mink, fur-bearing animals, biological absorption coefficient, postnatal ontogenesis.

pp. 61-67


N.A. Tatarnikova, Dr.Vet.Sci., Professor,
A.A. Bekker, Cand.Vet.Sci.,
Perm State Agricultural Academy
Petropavlovskaia St., 23, Perm, Russia, 614000,

Chronic infections in livestock farms represent great economic problems due to the highly contagiousness, longer course and considerable damage brought to youngsters in particular to breeding animals. Chlamydia infection of pigs and cattle is quite significant disease causing pathological processes of adults with erased clinical picture and severe pathological conditions of the fetus and newborn animal. It is known that chlamydial infection of animals is anthropozoonosis, and it is dangerous also for livestock farm workers. In the available literature there are few works devoted to the study of kidney pathology within chlamydia infection, which are fragmented. So far, many questions of chlamydia pathogenesis require further study, in particular, organs of renal system within this pathology are not sufficiently studied, and this determines the relevance of our research. The study of this problem will develop a system of recreational activities and will significantly reduce the economic losses caused by the disease. Infectious process in organisms of diseased animals within chlamydia infection is morphologically characterized by the development of dyscirculatory, immunopathological, autoallergic, compensatory and adaptive reactions in the tissues of parenchymatous organs, which are in situations of increased functional activity and which have a significant need for oxygen and nutrients. The expressed tropism of chlamydia to the tissues of vessel walls is determined, namely, to the endothelium and the specialized cells of parenchymal organs, which are affected both within the insertion of the pathogen directly and indirectly through damage of the microcirculation system. As a result of ultrastructural studies the intracellular localization of the pathogen Chlamydia in parenchymal organs of laboratory animals after hematogenous spread of it throughout the organism is confirmed and its epiteliotropism and endotheliotropism are proved.
Key words: chlamydia infection, kidney, mitochondria.


pp. 68-73


I.S. Zubarev, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor
Perm State Agricultural Academy
Lunacharskogo, 3а, Perm, 614000, Russia,

The article gives an analysis of the theoretical and practical information, dedicated to the bankruptcy of an organization considered the stage of recognition of the debtor insolvent (bankrupt), the characteristic of deliberate and fraudulent bankruptcy, analyzed the main features of the objective of the parties of this type of bankruptcy. In the global and domestic economic science and in actual practice many models used estimates of bankruptcy of enterprises and organizations, based on different principles and methods. Bankruptcy prediction models are usually built on aggregate economic performance of individual organizations that best reflect the state of their financial and economic activity (FEA) and take into account national characteristics of the economy of the country in which the sample is done. Composition of economic indicators is determined by their informational value in determining the actual state of an organization. But due to the stochasticity of economic activities of organizations, enterprises or companies, explain the actions of many external and internal factors, the results of such assessments obtained using different models, are not always able to adequately reflect the actual state of the PCD particular organization. With this in mind, we can make erroneous conclusions about the real state of the organization. Insolvency, as one of the most common varieties of inability to meet the claims of creditors on monetary obligations can be established lending or rental of property to persons or entities that are not going to return them to the state or other third-party contributor agreement. Obtaining loans under management of any activity and its failure to involve embezzlement of funds for other purposes, and subsequently may lead to the recognition of the organization of insolvency (bankruptcy). As a result of the damage caused to the persons who issued the loan.
Key words: insolvency (bankruptcy), probability of bankruptcy, organization, financial statements, intentional, fictitious bankruptcy.

pp. 73-79


A.G. Svetlakov, Dr. Econ.Sci., Professor
I.M. Glotina, Cand. Econ. Sci., Associate Professor
Perm State Agricultural Academy named after Academician D.N. Prianishnikov,
23, Petropavlovskaia st., Perm, 614990, Russia,

Modern researches use different definitions for estimation and characteristics of the country’s economy condition. The most frequently used among them are stagnation, economic boom, pre-crisis condition, economic crisis, sustainable development of economy, etc. However, there is an integrated concept, which defines that kind of condition of economy and government institution, which determines the existence of the state itself; that is an economic security. Economic security concept is a quite difficult, polemical and ambiguous category. In scientific and special literature there is no unified point of view on this problem and economic security definition has been not formulated yet. In this article, different aspects of the Russian scientists according to economic security concept are analyzed; the main authors’ approaches to this concept interpretation are emphasized. In spite of a variety of existing definitions, in a majority they are about safety objectives, internal and external threat, state, branch and region as objects of economic security. In authors’ opinion, it is reasonable to examine economic security as interrelated variety of structural elements with relations and connections between them.
Key words: national security, economic security, category, interest, threat, danger.

pp. 79-85


A.G. Svetlakov, Dr.Econ.Sci., Professor
T.M. Iarkova, Cand.Econ.Sci., Associate Professor
Perm State Agricultural Academy named after Academician D.N. Prianishnikov,
23, Petropavlovskaia st., Perm, 614990, Russia,

The article reflects most relevant aspects of the need to strengthen the food security of the country and the independence of the regions. The relevance is confirmed by characteristic and statement of modern conditions for Russia at the world level. A number of domestic and foreign scientists concern with the food security of a state. The purpose of the study was to develop a set of recommendations to strengthen food independence of Russia in conditions of instability and uncertainty in the external environment, has helped identify and solve some problems. First, an analysis of existing conditions of our country’s membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO) is given. The authors draw attention to the problematic nature of Government support measures, and in particular to their lowlevel. The level of public support is shown in comparison with the European Union countries and the United States in the context of the past twenty-two years. Also, some conflicting data on customs regulation and pricing policies on local food markets are noted in the paper. An example of pork imports from abroad is given. Some areas of State regulation of social and agrarian sector are noted, as well as the results of the agricultural industry, taking into account the previously existing measures for State programs of agricultural development. The authors have educed positive dynamics of development of production on some types of food such as meat, sunflower and beets.The data on the state of agricultural production enabled the assessment of the level of food self-sufficiency and food independence. The results of the study made it possible to develop a set of measures to facilitate the effective management of agricultural industries and to strengthen food independence and the security of the State.
Key words: food safety, food independence, food, Government support, WTO sanctions, agriculture and food security.