AGRONOMY AND FORESTRY
INFLUENCE OF GREEN MANURE ON THE PHYTOSANITARY CONDITION
OF POTATO AGRO-ECOSYSTEMS
A.A. Vasiliev, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
SSI South Ural Research Institute of Horticulture and Potato,
Gidrostroi, 16, Shershni 454902 Chelyabinsk, Russia
The system of alternative farming is based on the reduction or total elimination of the synthetic fertilizers and plant protection products, and maximum use of biological factors to improve the fertility of the soil, to suppress weeds, pests and diseases, and other activities that do not have an adverse effect on nature, but improve the conditions of the harvest. In the current economic situation, the biologisation of farming may be the most affordable and at the same time an effective method of agricultural intensification and improvement of environment-forming influence. The main condition of biologized technologies is maximizing the use of domestic energy resources which include organic fertilizers, straw and green manure.
On the significance of green manuring D. N. Pryanishnikov wrote: “And where to improve soil fertility, especially when its enrichment with organic matter and manure for some reason is not enough, green manure is particularly important. Green manure as a fertilizer must become a very powerful means of raising crops and soil fertility”.
Spring rape in crop rotation also has a positive effect on the reduction of contamination of subsequent crops, of diseases, improves their productivity, and is a mandatory crop in the rotation with the introduction of energy saving technologies in the agriculture and plant breeding. The introduction of rape to the grain crop rotation increases productivity of arable land and yields of subsequent crops.
Rape root discharge is capable of suppressing pathogenic organisms in the soil and limiting the development of some weeds, in particular, wheat grass.
In the present circumstances, farms are unable to apply sufficient organic manure because of the reduction in livestock numbers and the high cost of fertilizers. Therefore, you must use more affordable cheap fertilizers. The most appropriate as an additional source of fertilizer is the application of green manure crops. Plowing spring rape and vetch-oat mixture for green manure in green fallows of the South Urals preserves soil fertility and improves the phytosanitary state of the agro-ecosystem. The supply of viable weed seeds in the plowing layer declined by 3.3-12.5%, the number of larvae of wireworms – 1.16-2.73 times, winter scoops – 1.69-1.93 times as compared to the pure fallow. The total infestation of potato crops after rape decreased by 17.3%, and after vetch-oat mixture to green manures by 9.7%.
Key words: potato, green manures, spring rape, vetch-oat mixture, phytosanitary status, fertility of the soil.
WAYS OF INCREASING PRODUCTION OF LEGUMES IN PREDURALIE
S.L. Eliseev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences
Perm State Agricultural Academy
Petropavlovskaia, 23, Perm 614990 Russia
To date, the focus in the production of animal feed, along with increased volumes, is improving the quality. The most important aspect of this problem is feed protein. The problem of protein is both scientifically and practically topical. All the most common Poaceae grain forage cultivars in Russia have a significant shortage of digestible protein. Zootechny science and practice has long been established that in order to fully meet the needs of animals with supporting and productive feeding on average 105…110g of digestible protein (maximum-120g) must be for 1 feed unit. However, the shortage of digestible protein for 1 feed unit is: barley – 36 of …42; oats – 25 to …31; corn – 46…51; triticale – 14 …22%, etc. In contrast, in legumes digested protein is found in abundance in relation to optimal value: pea – by 32; winter pea – by 34, vetch by 55%, etc. This situation requires an optimal balance of components for cultivation of mixed crops of grain and legumes in the production of balanced on digestible protein of grain forage feed. In a scientific article the author highlights the problem of the digestible protein availability in coarse grains in the Permskii krai and determines optimal production volumes of leguminous cultures. It was established that the production of pea and vetch seeds depends on changes in cultivated areas.
To increase the production of these crops we proposed to enlarge their sown areas in the priority cultivation zones up to 35-40,000 ha, as well as to extend the sown areas under adaptive varieties: peas Yamal and vetch Vera and in mixtures with cereals. The directions of cultivation of peas and vetch with cereals for coarse grains and seeds were offered. In mixtures for seeds, vetch is preferable to cultivate. The mixture with barley surpasses pure vetch crops by 24%, with the realization of the potential productivity of 84% and high stability. The productivity of the vetch-oat mixture is less stable. To increase the value and sustainability of feed grain production, the author advises to use the pea-barley mixture which productivity at the level of 3.5 t/ha excesses pure barley crops by 0.1 t/ha.
In mixtures with vetch it is also preferable to use barley. Crops should be placed on soils with a fertility site class not less than 50 points. Lupinus angustifolius of the grain direction is not adapted for growing in mixtures with cereals.
Key words: peas, vetch, agrophytocenosis, variety, yield.
GREEN REVOLUTION – THE FACTOR OF THE PROGRESS OF AGRICULTURE
Iu.N. Zubarev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences
Perm State Agricultural Academy
Petropavlovskaia, 23, Perm 614990 Russia
In the new millennium, the question of saving resources, dictated by the market and the world trade society (WTO), geopolitical and economic vectors of development of the global economy and agriculture arises more acute. The gist of it is that to get from the field the maximum number of high-quality and most affordable products, for all plants of this array equal conditions are created for growth and development without violating the norms of environmental safety. The history of the development of agriculture and the development of modern systems of tillage suggest that they must pass not only in the best but also in the extreme conditions encountered in the production practice. Agricultural production and a significant part of domestic agricultural specialists still have prospects for agriculture and agronomy, with increased use of intensive factors – mineral fertilizers, intensive tillage, use of chemical plant protection products, etc.
Agronomists are always overly fond of high doses of mineral fertilizers and chemical plant protection products without sufficient scientific justification for their use. Widely practiced intensive tillage, using heavy equipment, accompanied by costly labor and resources, are not comparable with the profit, or economic viability. Mastering modern adaptive agriculture technologies based on energy conservation and complexes of new tillage tools, requires the development of separate links of tillage, decreasing mechanical effect due to differentiation of the plow layer on the indicators of fertility and granulometric composition. We want to uncover the trends and policy issues of modern tillage, cultivation techniques and the use of new technologies in the agro-industrial complex, which routinely workers, professionals and consultants of the agricultural enterprises encounter in the Ural region.
Key words: tillage, new technologies, intensification, plant protein.
MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR NORMALIZING GRAIN PILES ON CONTAMINATION AND MOISTURE CONTENT AND THE TECHNOLOGY OF ITS PRELIMINARY
CLEANING AND DRYING
V.D.Galkin, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor
А.D.Galkin, Doctor of Engineering Sciences
S.V.Galkin, I.P. Mengaliev – Engineers
Perm State Agricultural Academy
Geroev Khasana, 113, Perm 614025 Russia
In the structure of grain production costs in wet areas, post-harvest operations costs, which include drying of grain heap, reach 50%. Therefore, the development of technologies and techniques designed to reduce the energy intensity of drying of seeds and grains, is an important and topical issue. Many scholars, both in our country and abroad, deal with the solution to this problem in the direction of improving technology of preliminary cleaning and drying, the dryer constructions. Development of mathematical models that take into account the probabilistic and statistical nature of conditions of post-harvest grain items and random nature of the technological operations related to the separation of components will lead to the creation of new technologies and equipment for seed preparation. The objective of our research was the development of the mathematical models of normalizing grain heap on contamination and moisture and, on that basis, the improvement of technology of preliminary cleaning and drying of grain and seeds. As a result, we obtained the mathematical models to predict the technology and energy evaluation of preliminary cleaning and drying of grain heap.
To improve the performance of the production lines of the grain pile on normalization of humidity and contamination and reduce energy costs for their work, a two-stage technology of pretreatment of grain heap by splitting into factions with their differentiated heat treatment. If you use the second-stage pre-treatment cylindrical sieve diameter 1200 mm, with the average value of supply 14200 kg/h of barley grain pile with 22.3% of humidity, the rotation rate must not be more than 201/min. The developed nomogram allows the choice of sizes of holes in sieves at a certain fullness of separation, separation of wet forage fractions over a specified range to its preparation using different technologies to feed animals.
Key words: grain seeds, mathematical models, two-stage purification technology, two-stage drying technology, options, modes.
BOTANY AND SOIL SCIENCE
PROBLEMS OF NATURAL RESOURCES OF MEDICINAL LICHENS
А.А. Bairamova, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor
Ganja State University
Geidar Aliev Prosp., Ganja, Azerbaidjan, AZ 2000
The investigation of lichens is deep for folk medicine. Resenoids of lichens are used in perfumery industry and they are purchase of raw materials for paint. Antibiotic activity of lichens is laborotor research subject to such countries as Finland, Japan, England, Spain, Swiss, Italy. Characteristics of different types of antibiotics have been tested. Currently, lichens acid are separated to 250. The signifiance of lichens toksonomic acid is learnt. But toksonomic medical biological activity of chemical substances from lichens have not been studied enough.
Xanthan composition of the Caucasus lichens to clarify the possibilities for the use of their medicial practice and scientific research facilities in Russia, Medicinal Plants (Moscow), The Intstitute has analyzed 230 species of lichens. These species include Verrucaria-3, Thelidium-2, Porina-3, Staurothele-1, Pyrenula-3, Arthopyrenia-, Chatnotheca-2, Calcium-4, Sphaerophorus-1, Coniocybe-1, Cyphelium-1, Strigula-1, Arthonia-3, Arthothelium-1, Xylographa-1, Graphis-1, Xanthoria-2, Opegrapha -6, Diploschistes-3, Collema-8, Leptogium-5, Lobaria-3, Microphiale-1, Peltula-1, Placynthium-1, Pannaria-1, Solorina-2, Nephroma-5, Peltigera-12, Lecidea-6, Psopa-2, Catillaria-3, Bacidia-2, Tonina-4, Rhizocarpon-3, Lecanora-25, Acarospora-5, Pertusaria-7, Aspicilia-6, Placodium-7, Cladonia-20, Lecania-4, Ochrolechia-2, Phlyctis-1, Haematomma-1, Candelariella-1, Parmeliopsis-2, Parmelia-35, Cetraria-4, Evernia-3, Ramalina-6, Caloplaca-6, Usnea-1 these species have been collected from various regions of the Caucasus. DG increased possibilities of use of drugs of plant origin around the world. For the first time, considering the importance of solving this problem,Western Region Special Protected Natural Areas (Goy-Gol National Park, Eldar Shamligi, Korchay and Garayazi State Nature) explored some lichens of the possibilities of natural resources and their use.
Key words: lichens, fitomass, plant, xanthan, emodin, hloroemodin, quinone, anthraquinone, fistsion, teloshistin.
MORPHOMETRY OF FORMING AND GERMINATING DILL AND PARSNIP SEEDS
А.F. Bukharov, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences
D.N. Baleev, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
М.I. Ivanova, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences
SRE Russian Research Institute of vegetable growing (GNU VNIIO Rosselchozacademii),
Building 500, v. Vereia, Ramenskii district,
Moscow oblast 140153 Russia
The authors set out the methodology of morphometric analysis of seeds of important vegetable umbelliferae plants. The main parameters of the endosperm and germ-line vegetable umbelliferae crops depending on the place of formation within the parent plant are presented in the paper. The statistical processing and interpretation of measurements are given. The coefficient of variation of the length of the corcle within separate parts of an umbrella, depending on the culture varies from 2.8 up to 8.5%. The variability within the entire plant is much higher; so the variation coefficient in parsnip is 30.0%, and slightly lower (14.0%) in dill. The features of the linear measurements of the development of the corcle in the process of formation and germination under the influence of various factors are considered. The length of the seed germ of the first order is 1.07 mm and linear measurement of corcles from the seeds of the second order is 0.74 mm. The inflorescences of the second order seeds contain corcles, the length of which is 0.76 mm, and in the seeds, formed in the central part of umbel, the germ length is 0.71 mm, what is 0.05 mm smaller. The magnitude of variation in the size of the corcle within the central part of the first-order umbel range is up to 1.08 1.03 mm. Corcle in the seed first and second order takes just 22-24 and 19-21%, in umbels of the third order – 16-17% of the length of the endosperm. In the intensity of the growth of the corcle during germination, the cultures differ significantly. The average rate of growth of the corcle by parsnip and dill sectional ranges from 0.05-0.06 mm/day to 0.11-0.15 mm/day. All the studied vegetables umbelliferae cultures are characterized by underdeveloped corcle that is in the process of germination develops up to a certain size, and only after that the seeds sprout and the process of germination begins. The authors propose a formula to calculate DEH (degree of the corcle hypoplasia) and discuss the prospect of application of morphometry and indicator of the the degree of the corcle hypoplasia in scientific research and practice of seed analysis.
Key words: seed, embryo, seed germination, umbrella, temperature, degree of the corcle hypoplasia.
DIVERSITY AND GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SOILS IN SUBPOLAR URAL
А.А. Dymov, Candidate of Biological Sciences
Е.V. Zhangurov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Institute of Biology, Komi RC, UD RAS
Kommunisticheskaia, 28, Syktyvkar 167982 Russia
Despite a series of works dedicated to soil and soil cover of subpolar Ural, the territory remains one of the least studied in the West macro-slope of the Urals. At present, the features of land-cover the most sublime mountain and tundra landscapes are studied not enough, especially in the more remote areas of this vast area. The sheer size of the territory, peculiarities of geomorphology, difficult terrain led to the significant biodiversity of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and consequent land-cover change in the altitude gradient. Based on the research of soil in the subpolar Urals we revealed the prevailing soils, emerging in the mountain forestry and mountain tundra zones, characterized by their physical confinement. The main background of the soil cover in the mountain-tundra zone is presented by varying subtypes of soil in the sections of litozems, Al-Fe-humus and glay soils. The mountain forest zone has a high diversity of soils comprising the sections of Al-Fe-humus, highly-differentiated, cryometamorphic and structural-metamorphic soils. It is shown that the soils of the region are characterized by a significant impact of the cryogenic factor that leads to specific micro-relief, the presence of ice permafrost, cryogenic structural organization of the middle mineral horizons, cryogenic cracks. For the first time to the subpolar Urals, a number of new regional studies of soils (peat, sorted circles at gleezemy-gleezemy, svetlozemy sorted circles at the same gland, sod, soil, kriometamorfičeskie-kriozemy, etc) is described. A systematic list of the dominant soil from Russian soil classification (2008), consisting of 24 types of soil in the 10 sections (excluding the alluvial and underdeveloped soils) is composed.
Key words: mountain soil, subpolar Ural, the Yugyd VA.
DIRECT AND INVERSE PROBLEMS OF SALT TRANSPORT MODEL UNDER STEADY STATE WATER-SALT CONDITIONS OF SOILS
Doctor of Agricultural Sciences
University of Selcuk, Konya, 42075 Turkey
The reliability of the soil salt regime forecast is heavily dependent on the accuracy of definition of parameters of salt transport. The importance here is the choice of mathematical model of salt tranport, giving a satisfactory description of the studied phenomena. Qualitative and quantitative changes in the salt content of stationary water-salt regime are forecast using analytical methods. Analytical methods are based on the use of solutions to the equation of water balance, written in differential form for specific calculation schemes. Practical interest is the prediction of secondary salinization and desalinization of aeration zone of soil as a result of long irrigation and ground water rise. You must know salt transport model parameters in advance when forecasting. In the analysis of the theory of salt transport in filtering water in saline soil, it was shown that the basic parameters, characterizing the transfer of dissolved salts, diffusion, convective parameters are to be determined according to the specific field and laboratory experiments. Their finding is led to the solution of the inverse problem of mathematical physics, which, by the known solution of boundary-value problem, you need to find the settings of differential equations. We developed a method for measurement of salt transport under conditions of stationary soil salt regime of aeration zone on the secondary salinization specified power, before and after watering, according to data from field experiments. On the basis of decision model of salt transport, explaining the process in a stationary soil water-salt regime of aeration zone, it is possible to define convective diffusion parameter for secondary salinization of soil as in the absence and in the presence of transpiration. The main advantage of this method is to alleviate the computational procedure and accuracy values for the parameter convection diffusion because it does not require to use in calculations difficult to determined in drainage practice, background information on the salt content of the soil surface.
Key words: modeling, salt transport, stationary regime, salinization, convective diffusion.
VETERINARY AND ZOOTECHNY
DOGS’ DIGESTIBILITY OF NUTRIENTS OF DRY FEEDING CONNECTED WITH
SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDING CONTAINING DIFFERENT AMOUNT OF BETULIN
V.M. Medvedev, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Senior Teacher, Institute of FPS;
V.A. Sitnikov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Professor
Perm State Agricultural Academy
Petropavlovskaia, 23, Perm 614990 Russia
We have studied the influence of the biologically active supplements from the birch bark extract with different amount of betulin to the commercial dogs dry feeding “Royal canin” using the police-dogs of German sheepdog species in the open-air cage conditions. Betulin is a biologically active wood alcohol obtained from the birch bark extract.
The experimental dogs received the supplements from the birch bark extract every day. The doses were 0.4 gr per 100 kg of live weight. The betulin content was 99% and 65%, respectively. The daily dose of birch bark extract for the grown-up dogs with the live weight equal to 30kg was 0.12g.
As a result of the experiments it was fixed that the usage of birch bark extract raised the efficiency of the biological feeding supplement to the dogs dry feeding “Royal canin” in spite of the betulin concentration. It also influenced on blood indices and increased the animals’ activity.
The most effective usage of nutrients in the ration was in the group of dogs receiving the birch bark extract with betulin content – 65%.
We think there are some other combinations in the birch bark extracts except betulin that identically influence on dogs. It depends on the degree of purification.
Having calculated the economical effectiveness of usage the birch bark extracts as biologically active supplementary feeding, we decided that it is enough to get the preparation with the high degree of purification from other combinations accompanying betulin.
Key words: betulin, dry food, dogs, feed, digestion, efficiency.
ECONOMY AND ACCOUNTANCY
UNIVERSAL TECHNOLOGY “DEMETR” FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES IN RURAL AREAS
V. N. Zekin, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor
Perm State Agricultural Academy
Petropavlovskaia 23, Perm 614990 Russia
Since July 15, 2013, the Government of the Russian Federation approved the federal target program “Sustainable development of rural territories in the 2014-2017 period and for the period up to the year 2020”. The main goals of the programme are to improve the living conditions of citizens living in rural areas, including young families and young professionals; integrated construction of settlements located in the countryside, the objects of social and engineering infrastructure. This began the search for new technologies, allowing for a short period of time and at an affordable price to erect buildings and facilities. The main purpose of this work was the development of technology for the construction of buildings and structures on the basis of the latest scientific and technological achievements for the enterprises of the agro-industrial complex. One such technology is developed by employees of the Department for Construction and Materials Sttudy – the new technology «Demeter» (timber-metal). The technology “Demetr” has the patent protection and the frame element connection is protected with patents No. 58567 from 13.06.2006, No. 65526 from 14.03.207, No. 78500 from 05.07.2008, No. 85922 from 14.04.2009. All the elements of the frame-rails and beams are standardized, this greatly reduces the cost of their manufacture. Connection methods of frame elements are protected by patents. The proposed technology allows the use of waste wood and hardwood, which is now almost is not used, the bearing elements of the framework. The core inside the wooden beams and pillars are made of profiled galvanized sheets. Structural elements can be attached as a bolt-on and or by notching, which greatly reduces the complexity of installation. When manufacturing the contruction on this technology we use corrugated sheet (construction core) and outside hardwood tree species or waste of coniferous wood. You can obtain it in any enterprise of the krai, which has a trained link of 5-6 employees. The weight of one item does not exceed 200 kg, on two trucks you can put the home set of 100 m2.
The load on the basement is also considerably reduced, and transportation costs are 6-8 times lower. Thanks to new technology we can produce prefabricated buildings at an affordable price, not higher than 13 thousand rubles for 1 m2. The tests showed sufficient load-bearing capacity of the carcass elements. Thermal insulation of walls may be provided by rigid mineral plate thickness of 250-300 mm, this helps reduce the cost of heating the building. Lifetime of frame buildings is 50 years under normal use. The manufacturer warranty is 5 years.
Key words: rapid construction technology of buildings and structures; low-rise housing; metal corrugated sheet; bearing capacity of structural elements; laminated veneer lumber; the natural texture of wood.
TAX BURDEN OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES
О. Ia. Starkova, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor
Perm State Agricultural Academy
Lunacharskogo, 3а, Perm 614000 Russia
The article identifies the need to improve fiscal management of agricultural producers in terms of the potential threat of economic sanctions. The author gives the definition of agricultural policy, formulates its objectives and the need for reform and points out the direction of change in agricultural policy and the effect of these changes on the example of Permskii Krai, defines tax revenues, their composition and importance for the formation of budget revenues. Definition of tax in accordance with the Russian legislation has been given. We consider the execution of the federal budget on income for the year 2013 and the 2014 year projections and refine features of contributions to the State budget funds and their impact on the financial position of enterprises, give the notion of the level of the tax burden, the necessity of tax reform and clarify directions of improvement of taxation of agricultural producers. We consider the tax benefits and concludes that their lack of effect on investment activity of enterprises. International experience of application of tax benefits in agriculture is given in the article. The peculiarities of taxation of agricultural business have been considered on the example of a small business is its tax burden and the dynamics of this indicator has been concluded. The calculation and payment of obligatory payments to the budget and State off-budget funds, the structure of these payments for a few years, the factors affecting their size have been analized. The author underlines that tax relief does not determine the size of the payments in the State budget funds, but the size of the tax base, on which the calculation of payments is executed, and compares the tax burden of small and large businesses in agriculture.
Key words: agricultural policy, tax policy, Government support, tax regulation, tax, contributions to social funds, budget, tax revenue, tax rate, tax burden.