PROCESSES AND MACHINERY OF AGRO-ENGINEERING SYSTEMS
FEATURES OF WHEAT GRAIN DRYING PROCESS IN THE ELEMENTARY LAYER(=PDF=)
© 2021.Galina V. Karpenko1*, Vladimir I. Kurdyumov2,
Andrey A. Pavlushin3, Mikhail A. Karpenko4
1, 2, 3, 4 Ulyanovsk State Agrarian University, Novy Venets boulevard, 1, Ulyanovsk, Russia, 432017
Abstract. In many regions of Russia, the harvesting period coincides with the rainy season and up to 60% of the harvested grain is in a wet state, requires drying. Accordingly, there is a need for energy-saving drying plants. In order to ensure the energy efficiency of grain dryers, the moisture-yielding abilities of grain were studied. Studies of the drying process of wheat grain in the elementary layer were carried out, during which drying curves and temperature curves of grain were obtained at various parameters of the drying agent. The drying process of an elementary grain layer at air velocities of 0.15; 0.4 was investigated; 0.8; 1.5 m/s. Studies have shown that an increase in air velocity from 0.15 m/s to 1.5 m/s does not significantly affect the nature of changes in drying curves. At the same time, the drying rate is determined not by external heat and moisture exchange, but by the rate of moisture transfer from the center of the grain to the surface. A study of the grain drying process in the elementary layer was carried out under conditions that exclude a noticeable effect of the air velocity on the process (vв = 0.6 … 0.8 m /s), the curves of drying wheat grain at different temperatures of the drying agent were given. According to the obtained curves, it was determined that with an increase in air temperature, moisture intake increases sharply. Studies have shown that according to the drying curves of wheat grain obtained at different humidity, air humidity has a significant effect on the drying process along with temperature. A mathematical expression describing a curved line on a grain drying graph in an elementary layer is given. As a result of the performed studies, it was found out that the drying process of individual grains takes place during a period of falling drying speed. The drying rate of individual grains is limited mainly by the process of moving moisture from their central part to the periphery. Under these conditions, the grain temperature approaches the air temperature for 5…10 minutes. The main parameters of the drying agent that determine the drying process of individual grains are its temperature and moisture content. The drying rate increases with increasing temperature and decreasing moisture content of the drying agent.
Key words: grain drying, hot air drying, energy saving, energy consumption, heat exchange
PARAMETERS OF THE SPIRAL-SCREW DEVICE FOR DOSING MINERAL FERTILIZERS WITH DIFFERENT CONSUMPTION CHARACTERISTICS(=PDF=)
© 2021. Evgeny A. Lyalin1*, Mikhail A. Trutnev2,
Nikolay V. Trutnev3
1, 2, 3 Perm State Agro-Technological University, Perm, Russia, 614990
Abstract. The application of mineral fertilizers is an important operation in the cultivation of agricultural crops, the main purpose of which is the uniform distribution of fertilizers over the surface of the field and compliance with the prescribed dose. For this, feeders of different operating principles are used. In order to increase the accuracy of dosing of mineral fertilizers and reduce the unevenness of the feed, it was proposed to use a spiral-screw dispenser (SVD). For the experiment, a laboratory setup was designed and manufactured. Thanks to the use of a standard technique, the physico-mechanical properties of the material used to study the dosing process of mineral fertilizers were determined. The design of a spiral-screw dispenser with its working bodies (spiral), the technological process and adjustments for changing the feed are described. The studies were carried out using the method of a multifactorial experiment. Experiments have established that with an average value of the consumption characteristic of fertilizer dosing – 320 kg / h, the rational parameters of the working body of a spiral-screw batcher are: a spiral with a diameter of 49 mm and its pitch 1.05d (51.45 mm) with a gap of 2.5 mm, with such parameters, the irregularity of fertilizer dosing does not exceed 0.2%, while the power consumption will be 45.2 W; to ensure the average consumption characteristic of dosing minerals – 1450 kg / h, it is advisable to use a spiral with a diameter of 90 mm, with a step of 1.25d (112.5 mm) and a gap of 7.5 mm, with these parameters, the irregularity of dosing is no more than 0 .4%, and the power consumption is 45.9 watts.
Key words: mineral fertilizers, dispenser, accuracy, uniformity, optimal parameters
GRAIN YIELD AND GREEN MASS OF CORN HYBRIDS DEPENDING ON THE DENSITY OF PLANT STANDING AND SOWING DATES(=PDF=)
© 2021. Bulat G. Akhiyarov1, Mukhamet M. Khaibullin 2, Rishat R. Abdulvaleev3,
Azat V. Valitov4*, Luiza M. Akhiyarova5
1,2,4,5 Bashkir State Agrarian University, Ufa, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, 450001
3 Aksenov Agro-Industrial College named after N.M. Sibirtseva, Kim village, Alsheevsky district, Republic of Bashkortostan Russia, 452135
email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, 4 email@example.com
Abstract. The purpose of the research was to study the density of standing and the timing of sowing of corn hybrids when cultivated for grain in the conditions of the southern forest-steppe of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The task was to determine the most highly productive hybrids for cultivation for grain, taking into account the seeding rate and sowing dates for the republic. The results of the research conducted in 2018-2020 show that the density of standing and the timing of sowing affect the formation of the yield of green mass, grain and corn grain quality in the conditions of the southern forest-steppe of the Republic of Bashkortostan. All corn hybrids tested in the experiment, in the conditions of the southern forest-steppe of the Republic of Bashkortostan, can provide high-quality grain. Depending on the seeding rate and sowing dates, the yield of corn grain can be 3.14-6.48 t/ha. When cultivating corn hybrids using grain technology, it is possible to obtain green mass at the level of 21.04-39.77 t / ha. To obtain stable high yields of grain and green mass, Nur, Baikal and Mashuk 171 hybrids are recommended for use at an early sowing date and a standing density of 80 thousand units / ha.
Key words: corn, hybrids, green mass, grain, standing density, yield, quality
QUALITY OF FIBER AND OIL CROPS SEEDS(=PDF=)
© 2021.Vera N. Goreeva1*, Elena V. Korepanova2, Ildus Sh. Fatykhov3, Chulpan M. Islamova4,
Gulzira R. Galieva5
1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy, Izhevsk, Russia, 426069
Abstract. In an average sample of oil flax seeds, fiber flax and monoecious Central Russian hemp harvested in 2018 and 2020, the amino acid composition of the seeds was determined. The content of amino acids varied both by crops, their varieties, and by years of research. In the seeds of all crops, the content of 13 amino acids was determined, six of which are essential – threonine, valine, methionine, leucine and isoleucine, phenylalanine, lysine and seven nonessential amino acids – arginine, tyrosine, proline, histidine, serine, alanine, and glycine. On average, over two years of research, the total amount of all amino acids in oil flax seeds VNIIMK 620 was 12.93 % on dry matter, including 5.70 % – essential and 7.23 % – nonessential. In the seeds of fiber flax Tomskiy 18, a 5.97, 3.08 and 2.89 % higher content of all essential and essential amino acids, respectively, was observed. On average, over two years of research in 2018, 2020 in cannabis seeds of the Vera variety, the highest content of all amino acids was observed, 19.93 % on dry matter basis, 8.78 % – essential and 11.16 % – nonessential. Cannabis varieties Nadezhda and Surskaya were inferior in the content of all amino acids by 2.24 % and 8.04 %, respectively, in the content of essential – by 0.81 % and 3.41 %, nonessential – by 1.43 % and 4.64 %, respectively.
Key words: oil flax, fiber flax, Central Russian monoecious hemp, protein, amino acid
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF SOME MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF STEMS OF DIOECIOUS CANNABIS HYBRIDS WITH MONOECIOUS VARIETIES(=PDF=)
© 2021. Vladislav L. Dmitriev1*, Leonid G. Shashkarov2, Mariya I. Yakovleva3
1,2,3 Chuvash State Agrarian University, Cheboksary, Russia
Abstract. The aim of the research was to conduct a comparative assessment of the morphological and anatomical features of the stems of dioecious cannabis hybrids with monoecious varieties. In increasing the yield of fiber, the introduction of more productive monoecious varieties and hybrids of hemp into production is important. Studies by a number of authors have shown that the most effective method of creating such varieties is intersort hybridization of dioecious and monoecious forms of cannabis. However, in the practice of breeding work, such crossing does not always lead to an increase in the productivity of hybrids in the offspring, i.e., to the manifestation of the heterosis effect. Therefore, the study of morphological and anatomical changes occurring in the growing and developing stems of hybrids in comparison with the parent forms is of particular interest. Based on the conducted research, the following conclusions can be drawn. According to the length of the technical part of the stem and its thickness, hybrids of direct crossing of dioecious forms of cannabis with monoecious are at the level of a higher-stem dioecious variety or slightly exceed it. The hybrids of the return crossing mostly occupy an intermediate position between the parents. In terms of the number and length of individual internodes, there is no significant difference between hybrids and parent forms. Some excess of hybrids of direct crossing of high-stemmed parents along the technical length of the stem is possible due to the longer length of the apical internodes. Anatomical study of the stems shows that hybrids of direct and reverse crossing are characterized by a more perfect structure of the cells of the bast fiber layer. The cells of their elementary fiber have a more regular oval-polygonal shape, better cellulose, fibrous bundles are arranged in one or two tiers, the walls of the cells of the elementary fiber are thick, the cavity is in the form of small slits or dots. At the output of the entire fiber, direct-crossing hybrids approach a higher-fiber parent, and return-crossing hybrids in most cases occupy an intermediate position between the parent forms. Hybrids are characterized by a low yield of short fiber and higher strength of long fiber. The results of the research can be used in breeding work on the development of new high-fiber varieties and hybrids of monoecious hemp with high fiber quality indicators.
Key words: hemp, variety, interport hybrid, stem morphology, stem tissue anatomy, bast cell anatomy, fiber content and strength
THE EFFECT OF TREATMENT ON THE WEEDINESS OF CROPS AND THE YIELD OF SOYBEAN SEEDS IN THE MIDDLE PREDURALIE(=PDF=)
© 2021. Yuri N. Zubarev1, Ekaterina A. Kuznetsova2*
1, 2 Perm State Agro-Technological University Perm, Russia, 614990
Abstract. The article presents the results of three-year (2016-2018) field studies to study the weediness of soybean crops when using various herbicides on the yield of soybean seed varieties. The field experiment was laid on the educational and scientific experimental field of the Perm State Agro-Technological University. Factor A – soybean variety: A1 – SibNIIK 315, A2 – Kasatka, A3 – Annushka, A4 – Bilyavka, A5 – Mageva, A6 – Svetlaya. Factor B – treatment methods: B1 – without treatment (control); B2 – pre-emergence application of a soil herbicide; В3 – pre-emergence application of a soil herbicide and one treatment per growing season with a post-emergence herbicide; B4 – one treatment per growing season with a post-emergence herbicide. The most widespread weed vegetation was represented by juvenile and perennial dicotyledons. The smallest number of weeds on the option is pre-emergence application of a soil herbicide and one treatment per growing season with a post-emergence herbicide (B3). On average, over three years, the highest grain yield was obtained in the varieties Mageva and SibNIIK 315, equal to 12.4 and 13.1 c / ha, respectively. Care methods did not give a significant increase in the yield of soybean seeds relative to the control variant.
Key words: yield, soybeans, weediness, herbicide, soybean varieties, weed component, juvenile, perennial weeds
REACTION OF SEEDED OATS VARIETIES TO PRE-SOWING TREATMENT OF SEEDS WITH JUSS-1 (B + Cu) PREPARATION(=PDF=)
© 2021. V.G. Kolesnikova
Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy, Izhevsk, Russia, 426033,
Abstract. The work reflects the results of studies on the treatment of seed material of oat varieties with the drug ZhUSS-1 (liquid fertilizer-stimulating composition) for field germination of seeds, prevalence of diseases, photosynthetic indicators and productivity of oat varieties (Argamak, Ulov, Gunther, Yakov). Investigations (2003-2016) with different varieties were carried out on sod-podzolic soil in the field crop rotation of JSC «Uchkhoz Iyul’skoe IzhGSKhA». The territory of this farm is located in the Votkinsk District and occupies the southern half of the Udmurt Republic, it is considered a warm, to a certain extent arid region (GTC = 1.0-1.2). The research results showed that the treatment of seed material with the drug ZhUSS-1 contributed to obtaining a higher grain yield by 14.2% in the Argamak variety, by 18.7% in the Ulov variety, by 17.7% in the Gunther variety, by 12.4% in varieties Yakov in comparison with the yield in the control without seed treatment. The increase in the yield of the studied varieties was due to an increase in seed germination by 3-10% in field conditions, by 59-210 thousand m2 x day / ha of photosynthetic potential, by 0.31-0.99 g / m2 per day in the net productivity of photosynthesis, reduction by 7.3- 2.4% of the prevalence of red-brown spotting and by 7.2-8.1% of root rot.
Key words: oats, variety, field germination, disease development, photosynthetic potential, productivity
DYNAMICS OF PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN THE MAIN PHASES OF DEVELOPMENT IN TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINAL PLANTS WHEN GRAFTING ON DIFFERENT TYPES OF CUCURBITA ROOTSTOCKS(=PDF=)
© 2021. Sergey A. Musikhin1*, Alexander V. Fedorov2, Olga A. Ardasheva3
1, 2, 3 Udmurt Federal Research Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Udmurt Republic, Izhevsk, Russia
firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract. By examining the activity of peroxidase in leaves, it is possible to determine the state of the plant at various stages of ontogenesis in both protected and open ground. The main purpose of the work was to study the dynamics of the accumulation of peroxidase activity in the leaves of Trichosanthes cucumerina L. in protected ground during the development phase – seedling period, flowering and fruiting. Objects of research: Trichosanthes cucumerina L. – control and plants grafted onto different types of pumpkins: Cucurbita pepo L., Cucurbita maxima Duch., Cucurbita moshata Duch., Cucurbita ficifolia Bouche., Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. In the studied variants in the seedling period in the years of research there was a multidirectional trend of growth of peroxidase activity from 70.4 units/mg in rootstock Trichosanthes cucumerina, to 3066.6 units/mg in Lagenaria siceraria rootstock, which is associated with a significant influence in this period of grafting technique and microclimatic conditions by years of research. In flowering phase in Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita moshata variants peroxidase activity was at the same level in all years of study. There is an assumption that Trichosanthes cucumerina plants in the variants with Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita moshata grafting were less exposed to stress factors. During the fruiting phase, the influence of the rootstock species caused an increase in scion peroxidase activity compared with the Trichosanthes cucumerina rootstock plants (2017-2018). Significant jump of peroxidase activity in fruiting phase in rootstock plants of Trichosanthes cucumerina (1481.6 units/mg) observed in 2019 is associated with a significant damage of spider mite. Significant increase of peroxidase activity indicator in variants with grafting on Cucurbita ficifolia (19462.8 units/mg), Lagenaria siceraria (21300.7 units/mg) in 2019 was associated with active formation of ovaries in comparison with other variants and years of research.
Key words: grafting, rootstock, peroxidase activity, scion, compatibility of grafting components, Trichosanthes cucumerina L
PHOTOSYNTHESIS INTENSITY AND YIELD FORMATION OF POTATO VARIETIES OF VARIOUS RIPENESS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE WEST KAZAKHSTAN REGION(=PDF=)
© 2021. Gulbaram K. Nurgalieva1*, Akylbek M. Nurgaliev2, Meiramgul K. Musina3
1, 2, 3 Zhangir khan West Kazakhstan Agrarian Technical University, Uralsk city,
Republic of Kazakhstan, 090009
Abstract. The paper presents a comparative assessment of the main economically valuable indicators (yield, dynamics of the accumulation of the yield of tubers of potato varieties of different maturation groups and the quality of tubers) of 26 varieties of potatoes, including: Russian selection – 13 varieties, domestic (Kazakh) – 2 varieties, far abroad – 11 varieties in conditions of the West Kazakhstan region of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The objects of research were: 11 early ripening varieties – Penzenskaya skorospelka, Zhukovsky ranniy, Impala, Utenok, Yagodny 19, Udacha, Karatop, Rozara, Timo, Aroza, Pushkinets; 5 mid-early varieties: Volzhanin, Nevsky, Zekura, Vladikavkazsky, Doriza; 6 mid-season varieties: Petersburg, Deziree, Record, Alaya Zarya, Post 86, Caroline; and 4 mid-late varieties: Asterix, Bintie, Lorkh, Valiza. In the accumulation of the yield, the varieties differed in the formation of the assimilation surface of the leaves and the intensity of photosynthesis. On average, over the years of research, the assimilation surface of leaves per one bush in potato varieties was from 0.563 to 1.002 m2; the formation of the assimilation leaf surface of plants per unit area ranged from 23.05 to 40.78 thousand m2 / ha. The conducted observations have established that the conditions of our climate have a significant effect on the energy of photosynthesis of plants, which varied from 5.58 to 7.64 mg / dm2 / hour. A high yield of tubers (c / ha) was noted among early-ripening varieties in the Udacha variety – 366 c / ha, slightly less – in the Rozara variety – 324 c / ha, then in the Aroza varieties – 300 c / ha, in the Karatop — 285, in the Zhukovsky – 277 c / ha and the variety Yagodny 19 – 268 c / ha. Among the mid-early varieties, the stable and highest yield during the years of research was in the Zekura variety – 360 c / ha and in the Nevsky variety – 241 c / ha. In the group of mid-ripening varieties, the varieties Petersburg (263 c / ha) and Alaya Zarya (231 c / ha) distinguished themselves. The yield for the medium-late variety Asterix (according to 2-year data) was at the level of the yield for the mid-early Nevsky. But the yield was very unstable for the years of research in the varieties Asteriks, Valiza, Petersburg. The yield of early maturing varieties Utenok, Penzenskaya skorospelka, Timo and Pushkinets was 52-59.2% of the yield of the Udacha variety. Medium early varieties Volzhanin and Doriza formed 57.5-58% of the yield of the Zekura variety. Yields of mid-season Record, Carolyn and mid-late varieties were even lower. The varieties of potatoes that have a complex of economically useful characteristics in the conditions of the West Kazakhstan region have been identified.
Key words: potato varieties, precocity groups, ecological variety testing, leaf surface, photosynthesis, yield
ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ARABLE SOILS FERTILITY DYNAMICS IN SHOROKHOV AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION COOPERATIVE IN THE OKTYABRSKY DISTRICT PERM KRAY(=PDF=)
© 2021. Vladimir R. Olekhov1*, Eduard F. Sataev2, Anatoly T. Kaigorodov3
1, 2 Perm State Agrarian and Technological University, Perm, Russia, 614990
3 State Center of Agrochemical Service «Permskiy», Perm, Russia, 614065
email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Abstract. The most important category of chemical and physico-chemical ecosystem functions of the soil are its functions as a source of nutrients and compounds, as well as a depot of nutrients, energy and moisture. The purpose of the research is to consider the ecological aspects of the fertility dynamics of arable soils of the Shorokhov APC in the Oktyabrsky District of Perm Krai. The paper is written on the results of four rounds of agrochemical investigations conducted by FSBI «GCAS «Permsky» in 1998, 2005, 2010 and 2018. Generalization of data on the exchange acidity of soils and the content of organic matter, mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium in them showed that arable soils of the Shorokhov APC are characterized by low cultivation. The analysis of fertility dynamics over a twenty-year period allows explaining the low cultivation of arable soils by a gradual decrease in the values of the most important agrochemical indicators as a result of extensive agricultural use, characterized by a low level of organic and mineral fertilizers. The negative dynamics of organic matter and nutrients content indicates that the most important ecosystem functions of soils – a source of nutrients and compounds, a depot of nutrients and energy – degrade and in the future, under the existing conditions, are in danger of complete loss.
Key words: fertility, agrochemical examination, dynamics of nutrition elements, arable soils, ecological functions of soils, soil degradation
THE EFFECT OF HUMIC PREPARATIONS ON THE BIOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF TOMATO PLANTS WHEN GROWN IN SPRING FILM GREENHOUSES(=PDF=)
© 2021. Tatiana V. Soromotina
Perm State Agro-Technological University, Perm, Russia, 614990
Abstract. The research work was carried out in 2019-2020 in the Agrofirma Usadba LLC of the Perm District of the Perm Kray. Two-factor experiment was laid. Factor A – types of drugs: Humate+7 (control) (SP), Altai Flora (SP), Altai Phytope Flora-S (SP). Factor B is the method of application of humic preparations: tillage before sowing, soaking of seeds before sowing, tillage + soaking of seeds; tillage before sowing + soaking of seeds + foliar top dressing. As a result of two-year studies, it was found that when growing tomatoes in spring film greenhouses, higher growth rates and morphometric indicators of plants were noted in variants with the complex use of drugs (soaking seeds + tillage + foliar fertilizing) Altai Flora, Altai Phytope Flora-S. The height of the plants was 193-195 cm; 32.2-32.5 pieces of leaves were formed on the plants. By 10.0-11.4% there were more inflorescences; by 4,4-7,1 % there were more fruits; the tying rate was 73.8-76.2%. With the complex use of the drug Humat +7, these indicators were significantly lower – plant height 170 cm; number of leaves 27.9 pieces; inflorescences 6.6 pieces; fruits in the inflorescence 4.5 pieces; binding 73.8%, respectively. In other variants of the experiment, the above indicators were significantly lower, as evidenced by the indicators of NSR05.
Key words: tomato, humic preparations, tillage, seed soaking, root fertilizing, biometric indicators of plants
VETERINARY AND ZOOTECHNY
FRACTAL MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF BIOSYSTEMIC CONSOLIDATION OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN THE INTESTINE OF BIRDS(=PDF=)
© 2021. Nikolay I. Vorobyov1, Marina V. Selina2*
1All-Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Microbiology, St. Petersburg, Russia, 196608
2Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology – M.I. Scriabin, Moscow, Russia, 109472
Abstract. The aim of the study was to develop a fractal mathematical model of the biosystem consolidation of microbial communities in the intestine of birds. To solve the problem, an experiment was set on laying hens and cockerels (cross «Hisex Brown»). The experiment was carried out on males and hens at the age of 36 days. Groups of microorganisms to determine the OTU spectra of the microflora of avian intestines obtained by NGS-sequencing were selected. It was revealed that the effect of the probiotic Cellobacterin-T on the microbiological digestion of plant cellulose in the intestines of birds is manifested in a larger-scale organizational biosystem form of destructive processes. The active participation of uncultivated microorganisms in biosystem destructive processes was determined.
Key words: index of biosystem consolidation of broiler intestinal microflora, probiotic Cellobacterin, fractal-topological analysis of fractal microflora portraits
CHARACTERISTICS THE MODERN POPULATION OF THE SIMMENTAL BREED OF CATTLE IN RUSSIA(=PDF=)
© 2021. Larisa P. Ignatieva,
Federal Research Center for Animal Husbandry named after Academician L.K. Ernst, Moscow Region, Dubrovitsy, Russia, 142132, firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract. According to 2020 year, the Simmental breed in Russia has a sufficient number of livestock of 131.2 thousand animals, including 75.2 thousand cows and ranks 4th in number among all livestock breeds. Most of the livestock is located in the Siberian, Volga and Central Federal District (91.6%). The milk productivity of cows was 5384 kg of milk with a fat content by 3.94% and protein content by 3.19%, the best indicators were achieved in breeding farms where the milk yield was 7012 kg with a fat content by 3.95% and protein content by 3.22%. High milk yield were characterized by cows of the Central and Ural Federal District. The Simmental breed as a breed of double productivity is quite late, so the age of the first calf was 869 days, while the age of culling was 3.91 lactation, which is higher than the average in the Russian Federation. The calf crop percent was at the level of 84.5%. Over the past period 2009-2020 years despite a significant decrease in the number of livestock of the Simmental breed by 2.6 times, the number of animals in breeding farms remained at the same level, while dairy productivity increased by + 1624 kg of milk, the fat content by +0.11% and protein by +0.07 The increase in milk production negatively affected for reproduction rates, since the open days increased by +7 days, in breeding farms by +13 days, the age of culling by -0.04 lactation, in breeding farms by -0.35 lactation, while calf crop percent increased slightly by +0.8%, in breeding plants it decreased to 82.5%.
Key words: Simmental breed, number of livestock, milk productivity, reproduction rates
THE STATE OF HOMEOSTASIS OF HIGHLY PRODUCTIVE DAIRY COWS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF GENETIC VALUE DURING THE MILKING PERIOD(=PDF=)
© 2021. Galina G. Karlikova
Federal Research Center for Animal Husbandry named after Academician L.K. Ernst, Moscow Oblast, Dubrovitsy, Russia, 142132, email@example.com
Abstract. The article deals with a comparative analysis of the level of milk productivity, milk quality and dynamics of blood indicators of Holstein cows during the milking period. During the milking period, the milk yield of cows in the third experimental group was highly reliable at 4001 kg of milk (P≤0,001), which is 644 kg more than in the second group and 925 kg more than in the first group. The mass fraction of fat varied from 4.08 to 4.18 %%. In the first group, the mass fraction of protein is 3.09, in 2 – 3.14 and in the third – 3.13 %%. 165 kg of milk fat (P≤0.01) was reliably obtained from animals of the third group during the period of distribution, the second experimental group – 137 and the first – 129 kg. The yield of milk protein in experimental animals of the third group is 125 kg (P≤0.001), 2-105 and 1 – 95 kg. From animals of the second group received – 105 kg and the first – 95 kg of milk fat. The content of globulin in the blood serum of group 1 cows at the beginning of milking is 56.0 g/l, at the end – 53.9 g / l, which is significantly higher than the level in other groups (P≤0.05). In group 3 cows at the end of the period, creatinine significantly increased to 74.8 mmol/l (P≤0.05). The content of alkaline phosphatase in the blood at the beginning of separation in all examined animals is normal. The level of glucose in the blood of cows in the range of 3.6 – 4.0 at the beginning and 2.7 – 4.3 at the end of the milking period (at a rate of 2.0 – 4.8 mmol/l).
Key words: cow, milking period, milk yield, fat, protein, blood, hematology, biochemistry
INFLUENCE OF ORIGIN AND TERM OF USE ON THE LIVE WEIGHT OF ROMANOV SHEEP(=PDF=)
© 2021. Mikhail N. Kostylev1, M.Yu. Lapina2*, Maria S. Barysheva3
1, 2, 3 Federal Williams Research Center of Forage Production and Agroecology, Yaroslavl Scientific Research Institute of Livestock Breeding and Forage Production, Yaroslavl Oblast, Mikhailovsky village, Russia, 150517
1, 2, 3 firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract. The article presents data on the study of productive indicators of Romanov sheep, depending on the genealogical affiliation of ewes and age of the animal. The strength of influence, repeatability and correlation of productive traits of sheep in the herd has also been established. The average live weight of ewes in the herd was 58.4 kg, which exceeds the minimum requirements of the elite class by 6.1%. Sheep of genealogical group No. 20 had the highest body weight, which by the sixth lambing was 65.7 kg. Genealogical groups No. 3, 25, 267 are also marked according to this indicator. The live weight of the ewes increases with age. A positive relationship was revealed between live weight and fertility (r=0.09); fertility and age of the sheep (r=0.19). This makes it possible to use both traits in breeding programs in order to increase productivity indicators. High values of the repeatability coefficient were noted during the growing period of 150-240 days. Reliable values of the heritability coefficient for the herd had such indicators as live weight and duration of economic use of the ewes (h2=0.42 and h2=0.35). It was found that sheep of genealogical groups No. 20, 25, 267 have a higher live weight with a significantly high genetic conditionality for this trait.
Key words: Romanov breed of sheep, genealogical group, live weight, repeatability, heritability
VARIABILITY OF THE FERTILIZING ABILITY INDICATOR OF HOLSTEIN BULLS SEMEN IN BREEDING AND COMMERCIAL HERDS(=PDF=)
© 2021. Elena N. Naryshkina
Federal Research Center for Animal Husbandry named after Academician L.K. Ernst, Moscow Oblast, Dubrovitsy, Russia, 142132, email@example.com
Abstract. The sperm production of breeding bulls used for insemination of cows and heifers of the breeding age meets the requirements of GOST. The fertilizing capacity of the semen in 50% of observations when used on heifers reaches 65%; in 25% of observations – up to 85… 87%. When using semen on older animals, this indicator decreases both in breeding and in commercial agricultural enterprises. The value of the fertility index of the semen of bulls-producers in commercial farms is 7…15% lower in comparison with other types of farms, has a more stable coefficient of variability of 13.8…15.5% when using semen on different age groups of cows. A wide range of variability is observed in breeding farms of 14.4… 19.8%. Both in breeding and commercial farms, heifers of the breeding age have a relatively high fertilization rate – 63.3…66.1% and, accordingly, the lowest level of egginess, not exceeding 13.6…16.1%. Since cows of the 1st calving and older have an indifferent period (the period from calving to the first insemination) is 74.2-81.6…up to 91.1 days, and the service period is more than 148 days, the fertilization rate does not exceed 40%, and the level of fertility is high – up to 60% or more in both breeding and commodity farms. The analysis of variance showed that the fertility of the seed of breeding bulls by 27.5% of the total variance is genetically determined by the influence of the breeding bull itself and by 15.6 and 12.3% by the influence of paratypical factors «economy» and «artificial insemination techniques». Despite the fact that high-quality semen is used to inseminate heifers of breeding age and cows, paratypical factors also have a greater influence on the fertilization of animals and their reproductive functions. The decrease in the fertilization of cows from 63.3…66.1% in heifers of breeding age to 40.9…47.1% in cows of the 1st calving and to 32.3…33.4% in cows of the 2nd… 8th calving is associated with a large influence of the factors «economy» – up to 16.7%, the age of the animal – up to 13.3% of the total variance (P≤0.001)
Key words: fertility, sire, sperm production, fertilization of cows, dispersion analysis
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING PHYTOMINERAL SUPPLEMENTS AND ENZYMES IN THE CALVES’ DIET(=PDF=)
© 2021. Aleksander A. Ovchninnikov1*, Lyudmila Yu. Ovchinnikova2,
Yulia V. Matrosova3, Evgenia N. Yerenko4
1, 2, 3, 4 South Ural State Agrarian University, Troitsk, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, 457100
Abstract. The method of introducing into the extract of alfalfa hay, certain essential mineral elements for the body with their consumption in a dosage of 10 to 50 mg / kg of live weight and the amylolytic enzyme GlucolyuxF in an amount of 0.50 kg / t of compound feed with separate and joint feeding was studied. The cultivation of repair young animals on diets according to a detailed system corresponded to the feeding rate recommended for repair young animals. The enrichment of the plant extract with biogenic trace elements led to an increase in the total amount of Cu in the diet of calves receiving the phytomineral complex – by 6.8-7.0 mg, Zn – by 13.7-14.6 mg, Co – by 2.2 mg, Mn – by 13.7 and 14.5 mg. The addition of only one phytomineral complex to the diet of animals increased the live weight of calves at six months of age by 3.6%, with the addition of an enzyme – by 5.7, when used together – by 8.1% with an average daily increase of 720 g, 734 g and 751 g. At the same time, in the body of animals that consumed the enzyme both separately and together with a phytomineral supplement, gross energy consumption was higher by 6.6 and 8.7%, exchange energy by 8.4 and 13.1%, and pure, productive energy gain by 21.5 and 40.0%. The consumption of EKE and protein for live weight gain was lower than the analogues of the control group than in animals receiving separately a phytomineral supplement and an amylolytic enzyme by 1.8-3.6%.
Key words: calves, feed additives, live weight, energy balance, feed costs
PAYMENT OF FEED BY THE INCREASE IN LIVE WEIGHT BY KARACHAI SHEEP WITH DIFFERENT MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGIES(=PDF=)
© 2021. Rustam Z. Halimbekov1, Valery V. Kulintsev2, Nina V. Konik3,
Murat B. Ulimbashev4*
1, 2 North Caucasian Federal Scientific Agrarian Center, Mikhailovsk, Russia, 356241
3 Saratov State Agrarian University named after N.I. Vavilova, Saratov, Russia, 410012
4 Ministry of Agriculture of the KBR, Nalchik, Russia, 360028
4 North Caucasian Federal Scientific Agrarian Center, Mikhailovsk, Russia, 356241
Abstract. Research on the study of age-related changes in live weight and the payment of feed by the increase in live weight were carried out on sheep in the conditions of Karachay breed sheep reproducers «Rassvet-N» LLC and «Elbrus Agro-Invest» LLC, located in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, which sharply differ from each other in the technological conditions of the sheep industry. «Rassvet-N» LLC uses the traditional mountain sheep keeping system for farms in the region, when animals are driven to alpine and subalpine pastures in May, while «Elbrus Agro-Invest» LLC uses a year-round sheep keeping system in the mountains (Hulamo-Bezengi Gorge): in summer – at altitudes of 3000 m or higher above the sea level; in winter – 1500-1800 m above the sea level. During the stable period of maintenance, «Rassvet-N» LLC used a universal combined feeder developed by us, consisting of a hopper for coarse feed and a removable hopper for bulk feed with a lid, whereas «Elbrus Agro-Invest» LLC used a floor feeder for hay and a feeder for concentrated feed. It was found that with these maintenance technologies, by the end of cultivation (12 months), the differences in live weight between the compared groups of rams amounted to 3.6 kg in favor of individuals of «Rassvet-N» LLC. More intensive growth and lower costs of basic feed nutrients per unit of production at a younger age of «Rassvet-N» LLC rams contributed to a better payment for feed with an increase in live weight over the entire period of research than in individuals of «Elbrus Agro-Invest» LLC by an average of 0.6 energy feed units and 60 g of digestible protein.
Key words: Karachai breed, rams, content technology, growth curve, feed payment by increment