PROCESSES AND MACHINERY OF AGRO-ENGINEERING SYSTEMS
DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD FOR DIAGNOSTICS OF THE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITHOUT DISASSEMBLING(=PDF=)
A.B. Berezovsky, Cand. Tech. Sci.;
Kazan National Research Technical University named after A.N. Tupolev-KAI,
10, Building No. 1, Karl Marx St., Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, 420111
The traditional mechanical gas distribution mechanism (GRM) of internal combustion engines (ICE) has a high valve drive efficiency, but it has some drawbacks. To remove the limitations inherent in the traditional timing belt, hydraulic, electromagnetic, pneumatic ICE valve drives are being actively developed. This helps to improve the performance of the engine. The purpose of the work is to study and comparative analysis of modern configurations of hydraulic drive timing for internal combustion engines to determine the most effective solutions. The analysis of literary sources, content analysis of patents was carried out. Also, in the course of the work, the following methods were used: structural-functional method, systems approach, formalization, essential analysis. The experimental part of the study was also implemented – the development and experimental substantiation of a method for diagnosing an internal combustion engine without the need for disassembly. It was revealed that the increase in the efficiency of the hydraulic valve drive is achieved by reducing the flow of fluid in it. This is done by increasing the working pressure of the fluid. Increasing the pressure in the hydraulic drive allows you to reduce the size of its elements. It is possible to use a one-way or two-way drive. If a one-way hydraulic cylinder is used, then its piston ensures the opening of the internal combustion engine valve, and its closing is carried out by the action of the valve spring. The use of a double-acting hydraulic cylinder in the drive, the piston of which is rigidly connected to the ICE valve, allows forcibly opening and closing the gas distribution element. The piston of the hydraulic cylinder can be rigidly connected to the valve stem of the internal combustion engine or simply press its bottom against the end of its stem. The authors call the first option a direct drive, the second – a push drive. The direct drive of the internal combustion engine valve assumes a minimum mass of moving parts. A push actuator uses a spring to close the valve. In the course of the experimental part, the developed experimental method opens up the possibility of calculating the displacement of the valve timing, abandoning the disassembly of the engine.
Key words: hydraulic valve drive, hydraulic drive circuits, advantages, disadvantages.
INFLUENCE OF COMPLEX FERTILIZERS AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PRODUCT BISOLBIFIT ON THE YIELD OF WINTER RYE GRAIN AND ON PLANT NUTRITION(=PDF=)
M.V. Dyatlova, Cand. Agr. Sci.;
T.V. Shaykova, Cand. Agr. Sci;
Federal State Budget Research Institution – Federal Research Center for Fiber Crops
1, Mira St., Rodina village, Pskov district, Pskov region, Russia, 1180559
The results of studies of the influence of traditional nitrogen fertilizing, foliar fertilizing with new forms of organo-mineral complex fertilizers containing macro- and microelements produced on the basis of bioactive substances (Codamine B-Mo, K-humate-Na, Agroflorin, Auxinolene) and the microbiological preparation Bisolbifit, used for modifying mineral fertilizers, on the yield of winter rye and plant nutrition are presented. Two parallel of the experiment were carried out on sod-podzolic light-clay soil with different degrees of cultivation. In a highly cultivated area, with the predecessor is clover, in a cultivated area-pure steam. The maximum yield of winter rye grain by the pure steam was obtained when applying mineral fertilizers in doses of N80P20K90; on clover – N60P20K90. In these variants, 1.13/1.20 t/ha or 73.4 and 65.9 % were added to the control, the payback of 1 kg of the active substance of fertilizers was 5.9 and 7.1 kg of grain, respectively. New complex fertilizers and biological products were studied against the background of a complete mineral fertilizer N40P60K70, where 20 kg of nitrogen was added to the main fertilizer and 20 kg a. s. – to the top dressing, in the tillering phase. The greatest effect among the applied biologics, both for pure steam (an increase of 0.39 t/ha or 16.6 % to the background variant) and for clover (0.28 t/ha or 9.3%), was obtained under the influence of treatments with Codamine B-Mo. The humic preparation K-Humate-Na was effective both for pure steam, where 0.34 t/ha or 14.5 % more grain was obtained than for the background variant, and for clover, where the increase to the background was 0.24 t/ha or 7.9 %. Agroflorin and Auxinolene for pure steam provided 0.35 t/ha or 14.9% in addition to the background variant. The introduction of the preparation Bisolbifit for pure steam provided 0.2 t/ha or 8.5 % additionally to the background. The accumulation of the main elements of nutrition in grain and straw, depending on the fertilizers used, was studied.
Key words: winter rye, new complex fertilizers, microbiological preparation, yield, plant nutrition elements.
STUDY OF COLLECTION OF WILD WHEATGRASS DRY STEPPES OF WESTERN KAZAKHSTAN TO IDENTIFY USEFUL FEATURES(=PDF=)
I.L. Didenko, Cand. Agr. Sci;
V.B.Limanskaya, Cand. Agr. Sci;
LLC «Ural Agricultural Experimental Station»,
6, Baraeva St., Uralsk, Republic of Kazakhstan, 090010
E- mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
R.S. Sarsengaliyev, Cand. Agr. Sci;
Zhangir Khan West Kazakhstan Agrarian Technical University,
51, Zhangir Khan St., Uralsk, Republic of Kazakhstan, 090009
E- mail: email@example.com
G.H. Shektybaeva, Cand. Agr. Sci;
G.H. Imanbaeva Researcher of the Selection Department,
LLC «Ural Agricultural Experimental Station»,
6, Baraeva St., Uralsk, Republic of Kazakhstan, 090010
E- mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The research work is carried out within the framework of the scientific and technical program BR10765017 «Study and provision of storage, replenishment, reproduction and effective use of genetic resources of agricultural plants to ensure the selection process.» The results of the study of the collection of 500 samples of aboriginal wheatgrass Agropyron Gaertn, four species: comb-like, pectinate, desert, and Siberian. The selections were carried out in 10 districts of the region by means of expedition gathering. Assessment of drought resistance showed that on average for 4 years for drought resistance, 26 wild samples of desert wheatgrass, 35 wild samples of comb-like wheatgrass, 18 wild samples of Siberian wheatgrass were allocated. According to the results of years of research on a range of useful features recognized as the best 20 wheatgrass samples of pectinate type. For further study, 19 samples of the comb-like K-7041, 7060, 7077, 7063, 6970, 5 samples of the desert species K-4045, 33834, 7054, 36771, 4 samples of the Siberian species of wheatgrass K-4502, 34496 will be used, which exceed the standard as by the yield of dry matter and seeds.
Key words: wheatgrass, view, wild, drought, winter-hardy, growing season, plant height, seed yield, yield of dry mass.
THE INFLUENCE OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNIQUES ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF SOY GRAIN AND ITS STRUCTURE IN THE MIDDLE PREDURALIE(=PDF=)
Iu.N. Zubarev, Dr. Agr. Sci.;
D.V. Kuzyakin, Cand. Agr. Sci.;
E.A. Kuznetsova, Postgraduate Student;
Perm State Agro-Technological University,
23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm, Russia, 614990
The article presents the results of studying the methods of treating crops with various herbicides and the yield of soybean grain varieties. The research was carried out for three years. The two-factor field experiment was laid down in 2016-2018 at the experimental field of the Perm State Agro-Technological University. Factor A – soybean variety: A1 – SibNIIK 315, A2 – Kasatka, A3 – Annushka, A4 – Bilyavka, A5 – Mageva, A6 – Svetlaya. Factor B – care methods: B1 – without treatment (control); B2 – pre-emergence application of a soil herbicide; В3 – pre-emergence application of a soil herbicide and one treatment per growing season with a post-emergence herbicide; B4 – one treatment per growing season with a postemergence herbicide. Agricultural technology is generally accepted for the region. Observations and research in the experiment were carried out according to generally accepted methods. The soil of the experimental plot is soddy-podzolic heavy loamy. As a result of the studies, it was revealed that, on average, over three years, the highest grain yield was obtained by the varieties Mageva and SibNIIK 315, equal to 12.4 and 13.1 c / ha, respectively. Care methods did not give a significant increase in the yield of soybeans relative to the control variant.
Key words: soybeans, herbicides, varieties, SibNIIK 315, Kasatka, Annushka, Bilyavka, Mageva, Svetlaya, yield.
INFLUENCE OF AN EFFLUENT ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SPRING BARLEY IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE NORTH-EAST OF THE NON-CHERNOZEM ZONE OF RUSSIA(=PDF=)
R.F. Kurbanov, Dr. Tech. Sci., Professor;
A.V. Sozontov, Cand. Tech. Sci., Assistant Professor;
E.S. Lysenko, Cand. Agr. Sci., Assistant Professor;
FSBEI HE Vyatka SATU,
133, Oktyabrsky Prospekt, Kirov, Russia, 610017
In connection with the development of organic farming in Russia, the problem of manure utilization becomes urgent. One of the ways of its disinfection is processing in bioreactors. This type of disposal produces biogas and effluent (by-product). Currently, studies are being conducted on the possibility of using effluent as another type of organic fertilizers. The influence of the effluent obtained as a result of processing of cattle manure was studied at the Vyatka State Technical University. The experiment was carried out according to the traditional method. When studying the effect of the effluent on spring barley in the conditions of the North-East of the Non-Chernozem zone of the Russian Federation, the following results were obtained: a positive effect of the use of the effluent on yield of spring barley was revealed, a reduction in the length of the growing season was noted, no negative effect on the elements of the productivity structure was revealed. The use of the effluent as a fertilizer, both in its pure form and in combination with mineral fertilizers, contributed to the reduction of the growing season compared with the control, a decrease in the growing season in the variants of experiments combining the use of the effluent with the use of mineral fertilizers for 3-5 days. The maximum yield of barley was noted in option 4-application of the effluent at a dose of 20 t / ha in combination with mineral fertilizers at a dose of N40P40K40 kg a.s./ha (45.0 c/ha) (the yield of the control was 20.9 c/ha, the yield when using only mineral fertilizers was 36.7 c/ha). The productive bushiness of the experimental variants was 3-3. 5 pcs., the length of the ear ranged from 10.0 to 10.1 cm. All the studied variants formed larger grains compared to the control. The most complete and balanced grains were noted in the variants with the use of the effluent in combination with mineral fertilizers. The maximum weight of grain from the main ear was noted in option 4 – with the use of the effluent at a dose of 2 t / ha in combination with mineral fertilizers at a dose of N40P40K40 kg a. s./ha.
Key words: spring crops, spring barley, effluent, plant nutrition, organic fertilizers, yield.
PHYSIOLOGICAL FEATURES AND PRODUCTIVITY OF WHITE MUSTARD AT INOCULATION OF SEEDS BY ASSOCIATIVE RHIZOBACTERIA UNDER NORMAL MOISTURE AND SOIL DROUGHT(=PDF=)
V.N. Lebedev, Cand. of Agr. Sci., Assistant professor;
G.A. Vorobeykov, Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor;
Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia
48 Emb.Riv. Moyka, Saint Petersburg, Russia, 191186
G.A. Uraev, Cand. Econ. Sci.;
Emperor Alexander I St. Petersburg State Transport University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
9 Moskovsky Av., Saint Petersburg, Russia, 190031
The influence of sowing inoculation of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seeds of the var. Rhapsody (k-4278) by associative rhizobacteria stimulating plant growth and development (PGPR) under conditions of normal moisture and short-term soil drought caused during the critical period (budding phase) was studied in pot experiments. There were five bacterial preparations used in our pot experiments: agrofil (Agrobacterium radiobacter, str. 10), mizorin (Arthrobacter mysorens, str. 7), flavobacterin (Flavobacterium sp., str, 30) and extrasol (Pseudomonas fluorescens, str, PG-5). Studies have shown that with the help of rhizobacteria, it is possible to increase the water-holding capacity of plants, the number of pods, the accumulation of dry matter in the aboveground mass, as well as the seed productivity of plants (the number and weight of seeds) that have survived the dry period. The most effective was bacterial preparation based on Agrobacterium radiobacter, str, 10, which showed the most pronounced protective properties for most of the considered morphophysiological parameters in conditions of soil drought. In addition, the economic efficiency of plants grown using these bacterial preparations after the dry period was noted. The possible reason for it is that agrofil agrobacteria are more likely to retain their physiological functions in arid soil increasing drought resistance in plants. These findings are a point for future research.
Key words: associative rhizobacteria, inoculation, introduce, germinating capacity, productivity, seed yield, drought, water stress, economic effect.
PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVITY OF SPRING TRITICALE CROPS DEPENDING ON THE LEVEL OF MINERAL NUTRITION IN THE SOUTHERN ZONE OF THE AMUR REGION(=PDF=)
A.A. Muratov, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor;
P.V. Tikhonchuk, Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor;
E.V. Tuaeva, Dr. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor;
E.B. Zakharova, Dr. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor;
E.A. Semenova, Dr. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor;
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education
«Far Eastern State Agrarian University»,
86, Polytechnicheskaya Street, Blagoveshchensk, Amur Oblast, Russia, 675005
High yields can be achieved by using modern agronomic techniques, including the optimization of mineral nutrition. In this regard, the aim was to study the possibility of increasing photosynthetic activity and plant productivity of spring triticale cultivar Karmen based on the creation of the most optimal mineral nutrition as a result of different doses of mineral fertilizers during sowing. The research was conducted in 2017-2019 in the southern agricultural zone of the Amur region. As a result of studies it was found that the value of leaf area depended on the dose of fertilizer during sowing and from the phase of the emergence of the booting stage intensity of leaf area growth increased relative to control by 15-31 %, reaching the maximum indicator to the phase of earing in the variant N60-P30 (20.5 thousand m2/ha). As a consequence, the amount of dry matter in the experiment variants with fertilizer application also increased, reaching the highest level by the end of the growing season more than 5 dt/ha at the highest dose of fertilizer. As a result, the grain yield in the experiment with the use of fertilizers was significantly higher than in the version without fertilizers and averaged 31.9 dt/ha, while in the control version it was 26.8 dt/ha. The highest yield (33.8 dt/ha) was observed in the variant with the highest dose of N60-P60: the increase in this variant compared to the control was 7.0 dt/ha or 26 %. At the same time, a significant increase in productivity was observed in variants with the increase of doses of nitrogen fertilizers N30 and N60-P30 by 13 and 23 %, respectively. Application of phosphorous fertilizers contributed to the increase in grain yield, but only by 1 and 3 % relative to the variants N30-P30 and N60-P60, respectively.
Key words: spring triticale, mineral fertilizers, photosynthetic activity, yield.
VETERINARY AND ZOOTECHNY
THE USE OF AN ENERGY SUPPLEMENT IN FEEDING HORSES OF SPORTS BREEDS(=PDF=)
E.M. Bachurina, Cand. Agr. Sci.;
V.I. Polkovnikova, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor;
Perm State Agro-Technological University,
111, Geroev Khasana St., Perm, Russia, 614025
The need for energy and nutrients in horses of the sports category depends on such factors as body weight, temperament, fatness, degree of fitness, speed and duration of movement, ambient temperature, age, gender, weight of the rider. Sports horses must be in good shape to perform the work in accordance with the requirements of a certain type of equestrian sport. For example, horses participating in long-distance races, harness horses must have endurance and strength, riding horses must have agility and jumping technique. During periods of intense exercise, horses need to review the diet and, if there is an insufficient amount of vitamins, amino acids, minerals, add various energy supplements. Triforce equistro is a highly concentrated feed additive specially designed to achieve the highest possible athletic level of the horse. During the study, two groups of animals were formed. The control group received the main diet, in the experimental group an energy supplement was added to the main diet. The biochemical parameters of the blood were determined before the start of the research and at the end. A biochemical blood test showed an increase in the level of hemoglobin in the blood of the experimental group at the end of the experiment by 8.7 %. Also, in the experimental group of horses, there is an increase in the number of red blood cells by 1.3 times. White blood cells were within the normal range, but in the horses of the experimental group, the indicators were lower by 1.0% compared to the control group. During the research period, clinical measurements of the heart rate (HR) and the frequency of respiratory movements (BPD) of horses at rest, after a dosed load and 30 minutes after it ( recovery period), also immediately after the competition and 30 minutes after them were carried out. In the control group, the recovery period of horses after 30 minutes after dosed work of heart rate and BDD lasted longer than in the experimental group by 3.9 % and 5.4 %, respectively. The recovery period after the competition in the horses of the control group was also exceeded, heart rate and BPD compared to the experimental group by 14 % and 33 %, respectively. The performance of horses was taken into account based on the results of participation in competitions in show jumping. In the horses of the experimental group, the success index was 71.9 %, which is 31.1 % higher than in the control group.
Key words: performance, horse, full-fledged diet, show jumping, dressage, energy feeding.
IDENTIFICATION OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FEED BEHAVIOR AND EFFICIENCY OF FOOD USE IN LANDRACE PIGS(=PDF=)
E.A. Trebunskih, Postgraduate Student;
Federal Scientific Center of Animal Husbandry – L. K. Ernst All-Russian Research Institute of Animal Husbandry,
pos. Dubrovitsy, 60, Podol’skii r-n, Moskovskaya obl., 142132, Russian Federation
Currently, the realization and improvement of the genetic potential of purebred individuals, as well as increasing the gene pool of healthy and profitable animals is an urgent task in pig breeding. To accomplish this task, it is necessary to include new parameters for selecting individuals for herd reproduction. In this study, the calculation of fodder behavior, predicted residual feed consumption and average daily gain in pig and boars of Landrace breed. High genetic correlations were found between these indicators of fodder behavior and fodder efficiency. Analyzing the obtained low and moderate heritability coefficients, we see that the highest parameter is in NVD – 0.486 and FPV – 0.429. The low heritability coefficients suggest that the genetic architecture of foraging behavior and feed use efficiency depend on the complex influence of traits on these indicators. Separately, we considered the RFI indicator, which is closely integrated with the average daily gain, in connection with which, the studied population array is divided into four groups: Group I, high ADG (>1000 g/d) and negative RFI; Group II, high ADG and positive RFI; Group III, ADG<1000 g/d and positive RFI; and Group IV, negative RFI and ADG <1000 g/d. Earlier research on boars of Duroc breed gave conclusions that it is necessary to choose individuals from groups I and IV to select more profitable animals for reproduction of the herd. The coefficient of inheritance RFI is 0,235, which is also confirmed by earlier studies in boars of Duroc breed, where h2=0.215.
Key words: feed intake behaviors, residual feed intake pig, average daily gain, genetics and phenotypes correlation, Landrace breed of pig.
IMMUNOGENETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RED-MOTLEY BREED MOTHER COWS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE REPRODUCTIVE ABILITY OF DAUGHTERS(=PDF=)
L.V. Efimova, Cand. Agr. Sci, Associate Professor;
Krasnoyarsk Research Institute of Animal Husbandry – Separate Division of the Federal Research Center «Krasnoyarsk Science Center» of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences»
66, Mira St., Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 660049
The article considers the frequencies of antigens and alleles in mother cows and daughter cows of the red-motley breed, depending on the level of fertility of mother cows (fertility index: high, medium, and low). The reproductive ability of mother and daughter cows was analyzed (fertility index, age of first calving, service period, coefficient of reproductive ability). The total number of mother-daughter pairs was 110. In the study, the antigens C2, E, X2, W, F, L, H`, and Z were found in mother cows and daughter cows most frequently (61.3-90.3 %). Most often (48.4- 51.6 %) C2E allele was contained. Correlation coefficients between indicators of reproductive ability in mother cows and daughter cows were at the average and low levels. It was revealed that daughter cows, descended from mothers with a high fertility index, tend to improve indicators of reproductive ability. Daughters from mothers with medium and low levels of fertility had a later age of the first calving by 24.2 and 8.9 days, a longer service period by 1.4 and 15.2 days, a lower reproductive capacity by 0.04.
Key words: immunogenetic factors, antigen, frequency of antigens, genotype, genetic marker, reproduction, red-motley breed.
REALIZATION OF PRODUCTIVE QUALITIES OF KARACHAI LAMBS IN FARMS OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF OWNERSHIP(=PDF=)
N.V. Konik, Dr. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor;
Saratov State Agrarian University named after N.I. Vavilov,
1, Theater Square, Saratov, Russia, 410012
E.R. Gosteva, Dr. Agr. Sci.;
Federal Center of Agriculture Research of the South-East Region,
7, Tulaykova St., Saratov, Russia, 410010
M.B. Ulimbashev, Dr. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor;
Ministry of Agriculture of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic,
27, Lenin Av., Nalchik, Russia, 360028
North Caucasus Federal Agrarian Research Centre
49, Nikonova St., Mikhailovsk, Russia, 356241
The research was carried out on the Karachay sheep in the conditions of the breeding reproducer for the breeding of the Karachay sheep breed of Dargan LLC and SP head of the farm Chochaev R.Kh., located in the Chereksky District of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic. The technology of keeping lambs included driving-mountain operation on high-mountain pastures, lasting for 5 months. It was found that by the age of 9 months, the live weight of lambs from Dargan LLC averaged 42.0 kg, which is 2.6 kg higher than the level of peers from the farm (P>0.999), the average daily increase in live weight for the entire period of cultivation – 141 g, or 9 g higher (P>0.95). Weighing of the cooled carcass and internal fat of the experimental livestock showed the superiority in these indicators of lambs from Dargan LLC, which was 1.7 (P>0.95) and 0.2 (P>0.95) kg, respectively. As a result of these differences, the indicators of slaughter weight and slaughter yield were higher in individuals from the breeding reproducer – by 1.9 kg (P>0.95) and 1.6 % (P>0.95), respectively. Analysis of the morphological and varietal composition of carcasses indicates the preferred superiority of individuals from the breeding reproducer. Thus, the individuals of the breeding reproducer of Dargan LLC, in contrast to their peers of the farm Chochaev R.Kh., realized the productivity potential at a higher level, which is associated with in-depth breeding work in this direction.
Key words: Karachai breed, sheep, live weight, growth, intensity, energy, meat productivity.
MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN LIVER TISSUE UNDER THE ACTION OF CONJUGATES OF BCG ANTIGENS AND BETULIN DERIVATIVES IN EXPERIMENTAL TUBERCULOSIS(=PDF=)
I.N. Koshkin, Post-Graduate Student;
Omsk State Agrarian University,
1, Institutskaya Square, Russia, Omsk, 644008
V.S. Vlasenko, Dr. Biol. Sci, Assistant Professor;
T.S. Dudoladova, Cand. Biol. Sci.;
Omsk Agrarian Scientific Center,
26, Koroleva Prospekt St., Russia, Omsk, 644012
This paper presents the results of morphometric and histological studies of the liver tissue in guinea pigs immunized with conjugates based on BCG antigens and betulin derivatives 30 days before they were infected with Mycobacterium bovis. The experiment was carried out on 25 mature guinea pigs, of which 5 groups were formed. The first experimental group (n = 5) was injected with BCG vaccine intradermally at a dose of 0.1 mg in 0.1 ml of saline solution, the second group (n = 5) – BCG antigen conjugate with betulinic acid subcutaneously at a dose of 0.5 mg/ml of protein and the third experimental group – BCG antigen conjugate with betulonic acid subcutaneously at a dose of 0.5 mg/ml of protein. Animals of the control group (n = 5) were subcutaneously injected with a saline solution at a dose of 0.5 ml. After 30 days, all guinea pigs of the control and experimental groups (n = 20) were infected at a dose of 0.001 mg / ml with a virulent culture of Mycobacterium bovis (8 pcs.). There were also five control intact animals. For histological and morphometric studies the animals infected M. bovis were killed on the 45th day. It was found out that infection with a virulent culture of mycobacteria caused the development of degenerative and destructive processes characterized by acute congestive hyperemia, lymphatic vascular dilation, small foci of hepatocyte necrosis with proliferation of lymphocytes and a decrease in the reparative reserves of liver tissues. The introduction of experimental conjugates 30 days before inoculation of the infect significantly limited the development of degenerative and destructive processes, and also increased the volume of reparative reserves of the liver, which reflected the increased resistance of laboratory animals to infection with virulent mycobacteria. The most positive effect, comparable to the effect of the BCG vaccine, was observed when using a conjugate of BCG antigens with betulonic acid.
Key words: tuberculosis, guinea pigs, BCG vaccine, conjugates, betulin, liver, morphometry.
ANALYSIS OF EFFECTIVENESS OF ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY FOR BRONHOPNEVMONIA IN CALVES(=PDF=)
N.B. Nikulina, Dr. Vet. Sci., Associate Professor;
Perm State Agro-Technological University,
23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm, Russia, 614990,
The study of the comparative assessment of the effectiveness of treatment of bronchopnevmonia in calves with various antibiotic drugs was carried out in the farms of the Perm Kray. The study included one to three-month-old black-motley calves with symptoms of bronchopnevmonia and healthy animals. The degree of development of the inflammatory process was monitored based on regular clinical observations, the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells and SOE was determined in the blood, the leukocyte formula and integral leukocyte indices were calculated: leukocyte intoxication index, leukocyte shift index, lymphocyte-monocyte ratio index. The main symptoms of bronchopnevmonia in young animals treated with bicillin-3 disappeared on day 16, enroflox on day 14, and floron on day 7. The dynamics of the effectiveness of calf antibiotic therapy correlated with the course of hemodynamic changes. In animals in whose therapy floron was used, the normalization of SOE, the number of basophils, eosinophils, stick-nuclear neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes in the blood and integral indices to the level of clinically healthy young were recorded. However, the number of young neutrophils in the blood remained elevated. Bicillin-3 and enroflox had the same regression period of clinical signs of disease. At the same time, the number of basophils, eosinophils, young and stick-nuclear neutrophils in the blood of calves after treatment remained high and did not reach the values of clinically healthy young. At the same time, the use of enroflox in the therapy of calf patients was accompanied by immune suppression, as evidenced by low levels of lymphocytes in the blood and a decrease in ICLM. The use of floron in the treatment of calf bronchopnevmonia has yielded a higher therapeutic effect compared to therapy with other antibacterial drugs.
Key words: calves, bronchopnevmonia, hematological displays-telly, bicillin-3, enroflox, floron.
EVALUATION OF THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF THE USE OF LAMARIN SALDONUM SUPPLEMENTS IN COW’S RATIONS(=PDF=)
N.A. Shemuranova, Cand. Agr. Sci.;
FSBSI FASC of the North-East,
166a, Lenin St., Kirov, Russia, 610007
In the course of the research it was established that adding to cow’s rations biologically active additive Lamarin Saldonum 30 days before the expected calving for 60 days at a dose of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 g per 1 kg of live weight a day stimulates their milk productivity during the first three month of lactation, allowing to increase their average daily milk production. The best results were obtained in the second experimental group where the average daily milk yield was reliably higher than in the control group by 4.71, 4.28 and 11.28 kg in the first, second and third months of lactation, respectively. In the first and third groups, an increase in this indicator was also observed in comparison with intact animals, but it was less significant (1.78 kg in the first month in both groups and 1.93 kg and 6.82 kg in the third month of lactation in the first and third groups, respectively) and had no significant differences. An increase in the mass fraction of fat and protein in the milk of the cows in whose rations the studied additive was included was established, which led to an increase in the gross yield of raw milk in these groups by 6.54-54.00 % as compared with the control. This resulted in decreasing cost price of raw milk from 17.00 rubles (in the control group) to 15.31 rubles, 12.52 rubles and 14.78 rubles, and increasing the profitability of its production by 14.93 %, 48.45 % and 20.37 % in the first, second and third experimental groups, respectively. The greatest economic effect from the use of the additive Lamarin Saldonum was obtained from the use of the additive at a dose of 0.2 g per 1 kg of animal live weight. Application of the given dose of additive in cows’ diets during the last 30 days of pregnancy and the first 30 days after calving allowed to get 18.22 rubles of additional profit for 1 ruble of additional costs, to decrease the cost of 1 kg of raw milk by 4.48 rubles and to increase its production profitability by 2.37 times in comparison with the control.
Key words: Lamarin Saldonum, milk production, gross milk yield, economic efficiency.