AGRONOMY AND FORESTRY
S.L. Eliseev, Dr.Agr.Sci., Professor
Perm State Agricultural Academy
23 Petropavlovskaya St., Perm 614990 Russia
ENERGETIC AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF GROWING TECHNIQUES OF VETCH FOR SEEDS
In Permskii krai, Russia two field experiments were conducted on the impact of mineral fertilizer dozes and sowing norms of vetch-barley mix on seed yield and the efficiency of their production. During the three-year study it was found that sod-podzolic loamy middle cultivated soil allows obtaining grain yield of vetch-barley mixture 2.33 t/ha, including vetch seeds 1.65 t/ha. Introduction of phosphoric fertilizer in a dose of 75 kg/ha of active substance and potassium fertilizer in a dose of 120 kg/ha of active substance increased grain yield of mixture by 0.31 t/ha.
Application of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers increased the production costs to 7.9 thousand RUR/ha, and the cost of vetch seed – by 2.1 RUR/kg. Profitability of production reduced 102%. Figures of energetic efficiency of production reduced as well: bio-energetic index decreased by 0.1, the energy cost increased by 2.4 GJ/t. When increasing doses of phosphoric fertilizer up to 110 kg/ha of active substance and nitric fertilizer up to 30 kg/ha of active substance grain mixture yield did not increase, and the proportion of bean component declined by 10-14%, so efficiency became even lower. The use of optimal seeding rates of components mixture 2.5 million vetch seeds/ha and 1.5 million barley seeds/ha reduced production costs by 0.5 thousand RUR/ha and increased the cost of crop by 4.7-4.4 thousand RUR/ha due to increased yields of expensive bean component. This version achieved the least energy cost of vetch seed as well.
Key words: vetch, barley, mixed crops, the dose of fertilizer, seed rate, economic and
FOREST PATHOLOGY STATE OF PLANTATIONS IN KURORTNYI RECREATIONAL FOREST-PARK OF SAINT PETERSBURG
V.F. Kovyazin, Dr.Bio.Sci., Professor
National Mineral Resources University (Mining University),
2, 21 Line, Vasilyevsky Island, S.Petersburg 199026 Russia
Yu.V. Zakharova, Master’s Degree Student,
Saint Petersburg State Forest Technical University
5, Institutskii Lane, S. Petersburg 194024 Russia
The evaluation of forest pathology state of plantations in Saint Petersburg’s Kurortnyi forest-park was carried out during two summer seasons 2013-2014. The total area of the forest-park is 22.9 thousand hectares. Forest covers 84% of the forest-park area, 19205 ha.
The state degree of plantations was as following: 0-1.5- healthy; 1.5-2.5- impaired; 2.5-3.5 – highly impaired; 3.5-4.5 – shrinkable; higher than 4.5– dead. The study found a variety of stem rot on both coniferous and broadleaves species. The most common for hardwoods are fungi: tinder fungus, honey fungus, and shelf fungus; for softwoods — spruce wound cancer and mottled butt rot. Agent of spruce wound cancer is a complex of imperfect and cup fungi, Biatorella difformis dominates, it infects bark, cambium, wood. A great danger for pine, spruce, fir is mottled butt rot. Increased recreational loads are conducive to development of centers of mottled butt rot, recreational loads result in damage of roots. The disease leads to massive drying out trees. Asps and birches are mainly infected with tinder fungus; live birch stems are infected with shelf fungus – large formless nubs of black colour, very hard, ligneous, covered with numerous deep checks. White rot, similar in its characteristics with rot from false tinder fungus develop in the trunks of infected trees. Honey funus (Armillaria mellea (Vahl. ex Fr.) Karst.) causes white sap rot in roots and trunks of coniferous and broadleaved trees. This type of fungus infects more than 230 species. To improve forest pathology state of plantations in Kurortnyi forest-park it is necessary to organize following measures: low-intensive sanitary thinning, replacing the removed trees with more resistant to air pollution and flooding species. When mottled butt rot is detected, it is recommended to introduce broadleaved species into coniferous plantations.
Key words: urban forests, forest pathology examination, plantation state, plant diseases.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MINIMUM TILLAGE SOIL IN COMPLETE FALLOW
Ulyanovskii Research Institute of Agriculture
19 Institutskaya St., Timiryazevskii, Ulyanovskii district, Ulyanovskaya oblast 433315 Russia
E-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
In terms of the Middle Volga region in 2001-2004 we studied the effect of different methods and timing of tillage on agrophysical parameters of fertility of leached chernozem, biological activity, nutrition mode, accumulation of productive resources of moisture and its flow rate on the yield formation of winter wheat. A quantitative assessment of the sustainability of the yield of winter wheat depending on the methods and timing of tillage in fallow is given. The experimental setup included 7 options: 1) autumn ploughing with plough PLN-4-35, 22 cm; 2) fall moldboard treatment 22 cm with racks of SibIME; 3) fall treatment at 8-10 cm with combined unit APK-3; 4) spring ploughing with plough PLN-4-35, 22 cm; 5) summer ploughing with plough PLN-4-35, 22 cm; 6) in the Spring of handling 8-10 cm with combined unit APK-3; 7) Summer treatment at 8-10 cm with combined unit APK-3. The expediency minor treatment carried out in autumn and spring, which improves the quality of primary tillage and soil fertility, provides an increase in the number of water-stable aggregates of 0.3 to 3.5%, increases the biological activity by 1.8-3.4 %, contributes to greater accumulation and retention of moisture by 5-12% and 7 %. The development of resource-saving technologies in the care about fallow helped to weaken the processes of soil degradation significantly, to solve all the problems of fallow treatment more successfully, to increase the wheat yield by 0.19-0.29 t/ha while reducing fuel consumption 2 times and direct costs by 22 %. This allowed us to eliminate the negative aspects of regular, traditional technologies and make them more productive economical and environmentally safe.
Key words: plowing, shallow tillage, moisture supply, grain yield, conditionally net income, winter wheat.
PERSPECTIVES ON INOCULATION OF SEEDS OF WHITE AND BROWN MUSTARD WITH ASSOCIATIVE NITROGEN-FIXING RHIZOBACTERIA STRAINS
V.N. Lebedev, Cand. Agr. Sci, Associate Professor,
Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, 48 Emb. Riv. Moyka, Saint Petersburg 191186 Russia
G.A. Uraev, Cand. Econ. Sci., Associate Professor,
Petersburg State Transport University
9 Moskovsky Pr., Sankt-Petersburg 190031 Russia
Long-term investigations carried out at the Herzen biostation (Vyritsa settlement, Gatchinskii district, Leningradskaya oblast) on revealing effective strains of associative rhizobacteria for white and brown mustard were analyzed. The increase in growth processes with the use of bacterial preparations was noticed. Seeds inoculated with associative strains of bacteria were indicated by accumulation of main mineral elements in aboveground organs of plants, that improves the quality of green mass. The concentration of total nitrogen in inoculated plants compared to control increases by 1.8-23.5%, phosphorus – by 7.1-40.0%, and potassium – by 19.2-62.5%. It was established that the application of the most effective for each crop associative rhizobacteria strains highly stimulates physiological processes, increases the biomass of aboveground organs. The best results were obtained from using bacterial products: mizorin (Arthrobacter mysorens strain 7) and flavobakterin (Flavobacterium sp., strain L 30). It should be noted that throughout the years, positive tendency of influence of bacterial strains on formation of herbage yield continued in both crops. Main economic indicators were calculated based on average sale price of dry crop mass – RUR1220 per ton to estimate the effect and efficiency of white and brown mustard seed inoculation with associative rhizobacteria. Maximum economic effect is achieved with the use of mizorin for brown mustard – 221.39% compared with controls.
Key words: inoculation, field experiment, productivity, phytoregulators, mineral nutrition, germination, growth processes, plant height, dry weight, associative rhizobacteria, economic effect.
COMPLEX APPLICATION OF CHEMICALS ON SPRING WHEAT FOR OPTIMUM ENVIRONMENT-FRIENDLY BALANCE OF NUTRIENTS AND HIGH PRODUCTIVITY
M.M. Sabitov, Cand. Agr. Sci.,
R.V. Naumetov, Cand. Agr. Sci.,
R.B. Sharipova, Cand. Geo. Sci.,
Ulyanovskii Research Institute of Agriculture
19 Institutskaya St., Timiryazevskii, Ulyanovskii rayon, Ulyanovskaya oblast 433315 Russia
The article presents the results of field experiments with fertilizers on the background of plant protection products. The soil of the plot was medium power, medium loam leached chernozem. The studies were conducted in integrated stationary experiments on the basis of FSBI «Ulyanovsk research Institute of agriculture» on the sidelines of the Agriculture Department in 2002-2004 in grain-fallow crop rotation. Ammonium nitrate, triple superphosphate and potassium chloride were used on the background of passive, episodic and integrated plant protection. The use of chemicals had a positive impact on the state of preservation of plants of spring wheat and exhibited a protective effect against major diseases of culture. Fertilizers are applied in different combinations and doses, above all, influenced the development of the plant, and hence the ability to resist against diseases. The use of nitrogen and phosphorus in double doses marked the greatest development of plant diseases powdery mildew to 25.0%, with rust to 7.0% and Septoria to 19.0%. Optimal stood out the option of making N90P90К90 with integrated protection, where disease prevalence was lowest powdery mildew of 0.2%, rust (brown) 1.0%, Septoria 1.2%, which allowed us to obtain maximum grain yield – 5.08 t/ha. Integrated use of chemicals on crops of spring wheat can reduce the number of harmful objects in 2.0-2.5 times up to the moment of the mass distribution in the fields and get high quality products. The biological removal of items to control weeds, episodic and integrated system of plant protection was the lowest – (N – 1.2; P2O5 — and K2O 1.0 – 5.9 kg/ha).
Key words: powdery mildew, brown rust and Septoria, protection, infestation of plants, infestation, removal of the batteries.
CHANGE IN CELLULOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF SOD-PODZOLIC SANDY LOAM, LIGHT-GRAY FOREST LOAMY AND PODZOLIZED LOAMY CHERNOZEM SOILS DURING THEIR MECHANICAL DISTURBANCE
V.I. Titova, Dr.Agr.Sci., Professor
S.S. Shakhov, Post-Graduate Student
Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy
Pr.Gagarina, 97, Nizhny Novgorod 603137 Russia
For studying influence of mechanical soil disturbance on its cellulolytic activity (CA) a model vegetation-field experience on three soil samples – sod-podzolic sandy loam soil (SPSL), light-gray forest loam soil (LGFL) and podzolized loamy chernozem soil – (PLC) was laid in the conditions of Nizhny Novgorod region. The variants consist of simulated disturbed soils with the ratio of arable layer to the subsurface of 1:1 and 1:2, respectively, which were compared with the undisturbed analogues (control ones). Observations during the season (with period of 3) with an interval of 30 days revealed that technogenic change of soil leads to its acidification and reducing of organic matter, which, in turn, inhibits the activity of cellulolytic organisms in variants of 1:1 and 1:2 (in SPS soil within respective variants CA was 7 and 16% compared with 24% in control; for LGFL soil – 30 and 22% compared with 43% in control; for PLC – 38 and 26% compared with 63% for control one). On the basis of the values of Pearson correlation coefficient proved functional and strong bond of pH, the carbon content and the CA in mechanically disturbed soils of all the analyzed soil types (PLC soil correlation coefficients of CA to the carbon content was 0.9463 and to pH — 0.9077; for LGFL – 0.9856 and 0.9377, for PLC – 0.9344 and 0.9436 respectively.). Our findings indicate a decline in activity of the microbiota in the mechanically disturbed soils and inhibition in processes of transformation of organic matter in these systems.
Key words: biological activity, mechanically disturbed soils, cellulolytic activity, podzolized chernozem soils, sod-podzolic soils, light gray forest soils.
INFLUENCE OF EXHAUSTED GASES RECIRCULATION DEGREE ON EFFICIENCY AND TOXICITY INDICATORS OF DIESEL TRACTOR 4Ч 11.0/12.5
S.P. Silkin, Engineer,
Perm State Agricultural Academy
Geroev Khasana St., 113, Perm 614025 Russia
The topicality of the problem of atmospheric air protection from harmful emissions is growing year by year. Currently, in many regions of the country an extremely negative environment has formed due to the fact, that the scale of human activities generates significant increase of allowable loads on natural systems, and the rehabilitation of geosystems occurs very slowly. Therefore, the problem of reducing atmospheric pollution has crossed the borders of states and even entire continents, has acquired an international character and has become almost common for all countries of the world. Flow and load characteristics of diesel and diesel exhaust gas recirculation processes derived from diesel test bench 4Ч11.0/12.5 prove the possibility of improving the environmental performance of the tractor and automotive diesel engines by applying a cooled exhaust gas recirculation. The use of 40% degree exhaust gases recirculation at Θinjection = 23° and ре = 0.51 MPa leads to a reduction of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gases by 86.4%, increase of total hydrocarbons by 9.0%, carbon monoxide – by 70%, carbon dioxide – 30.9% and smokiness – 50.0%. The permanence of effective indicators, toxic combustion characteristics and thermal engines was discovered as well.
Key words: recirculation, nitric oxide, exhaust gases, diesel engine.
SOME INDICATORS OF HEAT EXCHANGE PROCESS DURING THE WORK OF GRAIN CHILLER OF VORTEX TYPE
S. N. Shukhanov, Dr.Tech.Sci., Professor
Irkutsk GAU named after A.A. Ezhevsky,
Settlement Molodiozhnyi, Irkutsk district, 664038 Irkutsk oblast
Results of the research of heat exchange process during the work of grain chiller of vortex type are given in the paper. Criteria of dependence were received experimentally. For comparison, the data of other authors were provided. The obtained data allows moving apart a framework of knowledge in this area of science and considering them both as further development of the theory, and when developing design documentation.
Key words: process cooling, heat dissipation, criteria of dependence.
BOTANY AND SOIL SCIENCE
INFLUENCE OF TREATMENT WITH INSECTICIDES ON MEADOW CLOVER POLLEN FERTILITY
I.N.Kuzmenko, Сand.Bio.Sci.,Associate Professor,
E.V. Balandina, Сand.Agr.Sci., Associate Professor,
N.L. Koliasnikova, Dr.Bio.Sci., Professor,
Perm State Agricultural Academy,
23 Petropavlovskaya St, Perm 614990 Russia
In conditions of Preduralie in 2014 we studied the fertility of pollen grains of local red clover in control and after treatment with insecticides. The following insecticides were used: aktellik, аkhtar, bitoksibatsillin. The sizes and the form of mature pollen grains were determined. Diameter of pollen ranged from 30.7 to 32.4 mm, the ratio of long to short axis was 1: 1.05. Fixation of embryologic material and its treatment were conducted according to generally accepted method. Heads were fixed in the phase of bloomed and open flowers on the stem with Clark’s fixer. Pollen from the flowers for investigation was taken from heads of the I and II order. Pollen fertility varied from 66% in the control (without insecticide treatment) and to 76-86% of the treated in the budding stage of plant clover. The highest fertility in clover plants after application of aktellik. The population of clover inflorescences Аpion apricanus was 18%. The main method of collecting insects when studying species composition was mowing on clover using entomological net. At each site we took 4 tests (25 strokes in each), located diagonally across the field. Species composition was identified for red clover in Preduralie: pests (7 species), entomophages (5 species) and pollinators (4 species).
Key words: clover, pollen fertility, insecticides, entomofauna.
VETERINARY AND ZOOTECHNY
BIOCHEMICAL INDICATORS OF BLOOD IN ADULT ARCTIC FOXES OF DIFFERENT SEX AND COLOR TYPES
Yu.A. Berezina, Cand. Vet. Sci.,
M.A. Koshurnikova, Cand.Vet.Sci.,
I.A. Domski, Dr. Vet. Sci., Professor,
Russian Research Institute of Game Management and Fur Farming,
Russia, 610000, Kirov, Preobrazenskaya st., 79, VNIIOZ.
O.Yu. Bespyatykh, Cand.Bio. Sci., Associate Professor,
Vyatka State Humanity University,
Russia, 610002, Kirov, Krasnoarmeyskaya st., 26, VGGU.
Blood biochemical parameters of adult arctic foxes of different sex and color types were studied in semi-automatic biochemical analyzer «Biochim SA (USA) using a set of chemicals of the High Technology firm (USA) in the Kirov region in 2012-2014. The number of total protein in serum is higher in female and male blue foxes than females and males of other color types. The albumin level ranged from 42.9 g/l in female silver foxes to 56.7 g/l in male blue foxes. In this case, the figure was slightly higher in males of all colors than females. The level of alkaline phosphatase was minimal in males of blue color, maximum – in males of shadow color. The level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in female blue foxes was above 1.3-1.4 times than that in females of shadow color and silver color, the males – 1.4 and 1.9 times, respectively. The number of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in females of blue color was above 1.6-1.8 times than that of females of silver and shadow color, males – 2 and 1.3 times, respectively. The content of α-amylase ranged from a maximum value in blue foxes to a minimum in silver foxes. That is, the liver is functioning in blue foxes more intensely in comparison with others arctic foxes. The number of total and direct bilirubin, creatinine and urea, lactate dehydrogenase activity varied significantly in blood of females and males of different color types. Thus, the blood biochemical parameters (protein metabolism) depend on sex and color types in adult arctic foxes. The data obtained can be used as the confidence limits of blood biochemical indices in the system for monitoring the health of adult arctic foxes.
Key words: biochemical indicators, blood, arctic fox, animal sex, color types.
ECONOMY AND ACCOUNTANCY
DEVELOPMENT OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX AND PROVIDING FOOD SECURITY IN RUSSIA
I.V. Sorgutov, Cand.Eco.Sci., Senior Lecturer
V.S. Panin, Student
Perm State Agricultural Academy,
23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm, 614990 Russia
E-mail: Sorgutov_iliya@mail.ru, Pan.email@example.com
The article analyzes the competitiveness of the Russian agro-industrial complex and gives the assessment of state support for agricultural producers. The impact of the entry of the Russian Federation to the World Trade Organization (WTO) was evaluated. The article describes the existing programs for the development of domestic agriculture. The authors presented and described the mechanism of development of agricultural economy. The strategic development of agribusiness model that will reflect its development in the long term due to the following events was developed and described: the exclusion of contradictions in the laws; ensuring transparency in public administration for agro-industrial complex; achievement of good governance by automating, streamlining and computerization of all the processes of accounting and control of ministries and agencies by creating a single register. The system of strategic controlling, consisting in information, methodical and consulting support management in planning, organizing and controlling the use of resources, as well as is a modern management concept, designed to provide continuous system of comprehensive support and coordination processes of goal-setting, strategic planning, monitoring implementation of the strategy as well as a new level of strategic management decisions aimed at sustaining the agro-formation in the long term. It was found, that for the most intensive development of the agricultural sector Russia needs to develop small and medium forms of business, as they are more dynamic in their development compared to large enterprises, quickly respond to market needs, focus on the constant updating of the technology and have lower overhead costs.
Key words: agro-industrial complex, agriculture, food security, strategic management, controlling.
STATE REGULATION OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
O. Ia. Starkova, Cand. Econ. Sci., Associate Professor,
Perm State Agricultural Academy
3a Lunacharskogo St., Perm 614000 Russia
E-mail: klimova377@ mail.ru
In the work, the author determines innovation and makes an attempt to give the definition of innovation in the economy. The need of transition for the Russian Federation to the innovative development was identified. The papers justifies the reason for the focus on own financial resources in the development of the national economy to ensure accelerated import substitution. The genesis of the state tax policy in the period of formation and development of market relations was considered. The author compared perceptions of different authors in defining the role of the state in development. The importance of fiscal policy and the need for its improvement at the present stage was identified. The author considered used methods of state regulation of agricultural production. Some key areas of the Plan of priority measures to ensure sustainable development and social stabilization for 2015 and the possibility of their implementation in the agricultural sector of the economy were analyzed. The degree of dependence of the Russian Federation and the Perm region from imported food and agricultural raw materials was clarified. Innovations in the delivery of support from the Federal budget for the subsidization of interest rates on Bank loans and discounts in the purchase of agricultural machinery were considered. The place of small and medium enterprises in the agricultural sector of the Perm region was identified. The author explored new possibilities of tax incentives through the granting of the right of regional governments to lower tax rates of the single tax on imputed income and rates when using the simplified system of taxation, and the application of the full tax exemption in the first two years of activity small business enterprises. Existing experience assisting credit institutions experiencing problems with maintaining liquidity in the financial crisis was generalized. The authors considered measures to support the banking system with the purpose of providing loan funds to the real economy.
Key words: tax incentives, tax rates, budget subsidies, small and medium enterprises, import substitution, the banking system.