pp. 4-12


V. D. Galkin, Dr. Techn. Sci., Professor;

A. D. Galkin, Dr. Techn. Sci.;

V. A. Khandrikov, Cand. Techn. Sci.;

S. G. Maslennikov, Graduate Student,

Perm State Agro-Technological University

113, Geroev Khasana St., Perm, Russia, 614025



The research was carried out on an experimental cylindrical screen with an uneven rotation with a diameter of 0.25 m and a length of 0.94 m at the Department of Agricultural Machinery and Equipment of the Engineering Faculty of the Perm State Agro-Technological University. Cleaning of the screen was carried out with a fixed brush, and the drive allowed for uneven rotation of the screen. The experiments were carried out on Yekaterina wheat seeds, which were pre-cleaned and dried. The average value of fine impurities (weeds and cereals) passing through holes of oblong shape with width of 2 mm was 3.3%. The seeds were fed from a separate hopper with an adjustable rectangular hole. The studies were carried out at a tuned supply value of 500 kg/h using single-factor experiments and experiments using a two-factor experiment technique. The angle of inclination of the sieve and the amount of eccentricity were chosen as factors. The evaluation of the operation of the sieve was conducted on the degree of release of small impurities. The experiments found that the maximum degree of extraction of fine impurities of 74.2% was achieved with an indicator of kinematic mode of operation of the sieve 1.81, its inclination angle of 4 degrees and eccentricity of 10 mm, which exceeds this indicator for a sieve with uniform rotation. At the same time, the specific productivity exceeded 670 kg/h * m2.

Key words: wheat seeds, cleaning, sorting cylindrical screen, non-uniform rotation, parameters, degree of impurities extraction.

pp. 13-23


S. L. Demshin, Dr. Tech. Sci., Assistant Professor

D. A. Zyryanov, Researcher

Federal Agricultural Research Center of the North-East,

166a, Lenina St., Kirov, Russia, 610007


V. L Andreev, Dr. Tech. Sci., Professor


V. V. Ilyichev, Senior Lecturer


Nizhny Novgorod State University of Engineering and Economics

22a, Oktyabrskaya St., Knyaginino, Russia, 606340


The design and technological scheme of a multifunctional unit is proposed, capable of performing the primary non-moldboard tillage and secondary pre-sowing tillage is proposed, with replaceable working bodies: flat hoes to perform the subsoil tillage to a depth of 14-25 cm or cultivator hoes for carrying out pre-sowing tillage to a depth of 6-14 cm. To determine the optimal design and technological scheme of a multifunctional tillage unit, experiments were carried out to study the influence on its traction resistance of the parameters of flat hoes, their location according to the scheme of “direct” and “reverse” wedge on the frame of unit, the optimal position of the middle flat hoe relative to the side flat hoes. The results of the experiment showed that the most acceptable flat hoes with an apex angle of 2γ = 120°, which have a lower traction resistance with a relatively equal quality of processing. The traction resistance of flat-cutting paws with an apex angle of 2γ = 95°, depending on the speed of movement and the installation scheme of the flat hoes when processing stubble, is 4.7 12.1% higher than that of flat hoes with an apex angle of 2γ = 120°, when processing complete fallow, respectively, by 13.4 20.2%. Installation of working bodies with a maximum displacement of the middle flat hoe relative to the lateral ones, equal to 0.4 m, for the installation scheme of the flat hoes of “direct” wedge on the frame of unit allows some reduction, depending on the speed of movement, the traction force by 4.3 5.4%, for the «reverse» wedge on 4.2 4.7%. The values of the traction resistance of the flat hoes, set at a distance of ± 0.4 m for both paw placement schemes, are practically equal, which makes it possible to use any of the placement schemes when developing a tillage machine. From a structural point of view, the layout of flat hoes in the form of a «reverse» wedge is more acceptable. The optimum displacement of the middle flat hoe relative to the side paws is 0.35 0.40 m.

Key words: technology of the primary non-moldboard tillage, flat hoe, disk sections, traction resistance.

pp. 23-30


V. G. Mohnatkin, Dr. Tech. Sci., Professor

M. S. Poijrkov, Cand. Tech. Sci., Associate Professor

R. M. Gorbunov, Cand. Tech. Sci.

Vyatka State Agricultural Academy

133, Octyabrskiy Prospect St., Kirov, Russia, 610017



The article presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the hammer shredder of coarse feed developed in the Vyatka State Agricultural Academy. A distinctive feature of the unit is the design of a horizontal feed hopper. In addition, a detailed analysis of the current state of this direction for the creation of both coarse feed shredders and feed preparation equipment in general is given. The research was carried out using modern methods of mathematical modeling with both single-factor experiments and multi-factor experiments adapted to specific conditions. It is stated that more than one generation of scientists (Aleshkin V. R., Sysuev V. A., Melnikov S. V., Vagin B. I., Trutnev M. A., Savinykh P. A., Mokhnatkin V. G., Poyarkov M. S., Rylov A. A., Solonshchikov P. N.) were engaged in the creation of coarse feed shredders and many others), but as practice shows, there is still a lot of work to be done in this direction, both in theoretical and practical terms, including the development of proven and new research methods, including using and relying on the work of foreign colleagues. Based on the results of experimental studies of the shredder, mathematical dependences of such indicators as productivity, energy consumption, and quality indicators of the installation depending on the number of hammers on the rotor are obtained. The optimal values of factors that determine the performance of the shredder were found using the experiment planning method. The materials are ready for transfer to interested machine-building enterprises.

Key words: shredder, rotor, hammer, hopper, productivity, feeder, straw, energy consumption.


pp. 31-39


V. A. Voloshin, Dr. Agr. Sci.,

Perm Agricultural Research Institute of PFRC UB RAS

12, Kultury St., Lobanovo, Permskiy Kray, Russia, 614532



In the breeding nursery of the Perm Research Institute of the Perm Federal Research Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, during 2016-2019, eight samples of changeable alfalfa were studied: Sarga, Uralochka, Victoria (Ural Research Institute of Agriculture, Yekaterinburg), Selena (All-Russian Research Institute of Feed, Moscow), Bystraya, PP-18, PP-8 and PP-14-17 (SATU of the Northern Trans-Urals , Tyumen). The soil of the experimental site is soddy-podzolic heavy loamy with a humus content of 2.83%, pH-5.1, Ng-2.71 mg/100g, 298.0 and 167.0 mg/kg of soil, respectively. The meteorological conditions during the years of the research varied: the growing season of 2016 is characterized as warm and dry; 2017 was cool with a satisfactory supply of productive moisture in the soil; 2018 was a warm year with uneven soil moisture during the growing season; 2019 can be described as a cool year with excessive rainfall in the second half of the growing season. With summer sowing in 2016, under conditions of soil moisture deficiency, field germination on average for the varieties was 45.4%. With satisfactory soil moisture during spring sowing in 2017, the field germination rate on average for the collection turned out to be higher – by 63.9%. All varieties of changeable alfalfa, regardless of the sowing time, weather conditions in the first year of life, grew and developed according to the spring type, forming herbage of 44-64 cm by the end of the growing season. On average, for the two tabs of the collection, the advantage in yield of dry mass was given to grass stands of the first year of use – 1.217 against 0.817 kg/m2 in the second year of use. The most productive – 1.225 kg/m2 of dry mass on average for two bookmarks was the sample PP-18 (SATU of the Northern Zauralye, Tyumen). The PP-8 sample of the same institution in both tabs was characterized by a stable yield of feed mass during all the years of observation.

Key words: changeable alfalfa, variety, sample — wild plant, germination development phases, wintering, yield of forage mass.

pp. 39-51


F. A. Guliev, Dr. Agr.  Sci., Professor,

Lenkoran Regional Scientific Center,

18, Sh. Akhundova St., Lenkoran, Azerbaijan, AZ4200

E-mail: prof.f

L. A. Huseynova,

Scientific Research Institute of Plant Protection and Industrial Crops,

50, A. Aliyeva St., Ganja, Azerbaijan, AZ4200



The cultivation of pomegranate is one of the main branches of agriculture in Azerbaijan, generating income for the country’s economy. In this regard, the harmful mycobiota and entomofauna of the pomegranate orchards of the republic is very rich. The article reflects the results of studies carried out in 2018-2020 in order to study the species composition of the main pathogens of pomegranate diseases in the western geographic region of Azerbaijan (Ganja-Kazakh geographic region) and improve measures to combat the main ones. In the 2018 research year, a common pomegranate mycobiota was identified. The survey method consisted in a systematic inspection of pomegranate plantations. All aboveground plant organs were examined. For this, samples of herbarium (biological material) were collected and the most common types of harmful phytopathogenic fungi were identified. It was found that anthracnose or scab of pomegranate fruits (Sphaceloma punicae Bitank. Et Jenk.) and zithiosis fruit rot (Zythia versoniana Sacc.) are the most common in the western regions of Azerbaijan. They cause rotting of fruits, which adversely affect the quantity and quality of plant products. After identifying the causative agents of the most dangerous diseases, studies were carried out to study their prevalence in the western regions of the republic. When establishing the prevalence of pomegranate zithiosis and anthracnose, pomegranate plantations were examined in 2-3 plots. In 2019, a report was prepared on the prevalence and intensity of these diseases in the region. In the fight against major diseases, a scientifically based and improved integrated control system has been developed. The dynamics of the development of diseases was studied in the Goranboy region in a special area. Under laboratory conditions, pathogens were isolated into a pure culture, the growth and development of fungi in Petri dishes at temperatures of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 0C were studied. The experiments were carried out in triplicate. The count was carried out daily, the date of mycelium formation and its color, growth in diameter, as well as the date of the appearance of fruiting and the change in the color of the substrate were noted. In addition, the growth and development of fungi were studied on various nutrient media at a constant temperature (25 0C).

Key words: pomegranate, species composition, causative agent of the disease, zithiosis fruit rot, anthracnosis or scab of pomegranate fruits, prevalence, intensity, control measures.

pp. 52-65


S. M. Pakshina, Dr. Biol. Sci., Professor; N. M. Belous, Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor;

S. F. Chesalin, Cand. Agr. Sci., E. V. Smolsky, Cand. Agr. Sci.;

Bryansk State Agrarian University

2a, Sovetskaya St., Kokino, Vygonicksky District, Bryanskaya Oblast, Russia, 243365



The work deals with the process of biological removal of nutrient elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) from alluvial meadow soil with the crops of poaceae grasses: Dáctylis glomeráta, Festuca pratensis, Phalaris arundinacea. To reveal the mechanisms involved in biological removal of nutrients from the soil and to form qualitative indices of fodder herbs, the parameter of biological removal of ions from the soil was used. Dáctylis glomeráta, Festuca pratensis, Phalaris arundinacea have the following values σк: 2.46; 2.63; 2.34 C/m2. As the dose of total mineral fertilizer increases, electrostatic field tension around the surface of root systems of plants and soil solution flow to the roots increases, the value of Pe decreases and biological removal of nutrients increases. A particular role of magnesium in the process of biological removal of ions from soil has been established, in that the root system of plants absorbs magnesium under extreme conditions caused by lack of potassium for synthesis of nitrogen-containing organic substances, which are replenished with nitrogen-free extractive substances, which include magnesium. This phenomenon leads to a 2-3-fold improvement in the quality of the feed compared to the control with full mineral fertilizer applications. Calculations according to the formula of biological removal lead to comparable numerical values of experimental and calculated data of nutrient elements content in air-dry mass of herbs, as well as quality indicators of fodder. These results lead to the conclusion that the dependence expressing a significant pattern of biological removal of nutrient elements from the soil by poaceae grasses has been experimentally confirmed. This pattern is true for each nutrient.

Key words: alluvial soil, bluegrass herbs, nutrients, mineral fertilizer, regularity, biological removal.

pp. 65-76


M. M. Sabitov, Cand. Agr. Sci.

Samara Federal Research Scientific Center RAS,

Ulyanovsk Scientific Research Agriculture Institute

19, Institutskaya St., Timiryazevsky, Ulyanovsky District, Ulyanovsk Oblast,

Russia, 433315



Research was conducted to study the impact of technologies in the cultivation of agricultural crops in the agricultural landscapes of the Ulyanovsk region on improving their efficiency. They were used in grain-fallow crop rotation using domestic agricultural machines and zoned varieties in the middle Volga region. Experiments were carried out in 2010-2015 on leached medium-weak medium-loamy chernozem. In a multi-factorial experiment, we studied an extensive one, including a dump without the use of agro-chemical agents; a normal one with the use of medium doses of macro-fertilizers and protection from weeds; intensive designed to produce a programmable crop. The applied agrotechnologies in grain crop rotations contribute to improving the water and nutrient regimes of the soil, as well as to reducing clogging due to optimal combinations of chemicals. A high degree of intensification of agricultural technologies in farms can be used depending on the resource potential of land users. The largest resource saving was provided by normal on a natural background, costs decreased by 3.5%, and intensive – 2.9%. The lowest cost in the experiments was obtained at maintenance doses of fertilizers 3496 rubles/t. According to the most saturated agricultural technology, with a yield of 2.43…2.71 t/ha, the profitability was at the level of 53 … 86%. According to the classical variant of crop cultivation in the crop rotation, the productivity was 2.39…2.97 t/ha with a profit margin of 52…76%, and according to the normal version, it was 58…83% with a productivity of 2.46…2.88 t/ha.

Key words: technology, treatment, plant protection, contamination, biological activity, productivity, economic efficiency.

pp. 76-85


A. G. Cherkashin

FSBI Sverdlovsk Reference Center of Rosselkhoznadzor

St. Mostovaya, 15b, Yekaterinburg, Russia, 620016


L. V. Falaleeva, Cand. Agr. Sci., Assosiate Professor;

M. A. Nechunaev, Cand. Agr. Sci., Assosiate Professor; Yu. N. Zubarev, Dr. Arg. Sci., Professor

Perm State Agro-Technological University

23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm, 614990, Russia



The article contains results of the research on spring cereals (wheat, barley, and oat) yields depending on the method of pre-sowing tillage and climatic conditions during the vegetation period. Data on the spring cereals yields gathered through the field two factors experiment, which was performed in 2016-2018 years on sod-podzolic medium loamy soil on the experimental and training field of the PERM SATU. The scheme of the research was the following: Factor A – the method of pre-sowing tillage: A1 – cultivation (control), A2 – disk plowing, A3 – flat tillage; Factor B – spring cereal grain: B1 – wheat, B2 – barley, B3 – oat. An important condition for obtaining a stable yield of spring grain crops is the use of pre-sowing tillage, as well as weather conditions during the growing season of agricultural crops. As the result of the performed research wheat formed the highest grain yield after pre-sowing tillage in 2018 year, it was 3.93 tons per hectare. The flat tillage which was made with complex tillage-tool “Leader-1,8A” was more effective for barley and oat with yields of 3.79 and 4.44 tons per hectare, respectively. Also, 2018 was the most favorable for the spring cereal grains as it had optimum rainfall rate during the critical period of water absorption and temperatures during the vegetation period.

Key words: spring cereal grains, grain yield, climatic conditions, pre-sowing tillage.


pp. 86-93


M. F. Biniaz, Postgraduate Student

D. F. Ibishov, Dr. Vet. Sci., Professor

A. P. Osipov, Cand. Med. Sci., Associate Professor

S. L. Rastorguyeva, Senior Lecturer

Perm State Agro-Technological University

23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm, Russia, 614990



A common reason for the decline in the quality of sperm obtained from bulls is a violation of the function of the adnexal sex glands. Therefore, timely detection of their pathology is necessary to increase the profitability of breeding bulls. The aim of the work was to study the informative value of palpatory transrectal studies of the state of the adnexal sex glands in breeding bulls and to assess the need for their addition by ultrasound. The study was performed on 10 Holstein black-mottled breed bulls-producers at the breeding company “Permskoe on breeding work” Llc. Palpatory transrectal studies found no glandular abnormalities in five bulls, one bull had moderately enlarged glands, and two bulls had significantly enlarged glands. Two other bulls failed to have their glands palpated. This was the basis for assessing the condition of the adnexal glands by transrectal ultrasound. It provided the measurement of glands in all bulls. Moreover, palpatory and ultrasound transrectal studies found a significant increase in glands in the same two bulls, and the ejaculate received from them on the next day was rejected due to the presence of clots in it. Therefore, the measurement results of these two bulls were not taken into account. The absence of diseases in the other eight bulls suggests that the greatest diagnostic value in detecting pathology of the sexual adnexal glands is their length, and the often observed moderate increase in width should be considered as a variant of the norm for breeding bulls. No correlation was found between the body weight of bulls and the size of the adnexal glands. Consequently, their moderate hyperplasia is due to the genetic predisposition of breeding bulls to produce large volumes of sperm and (or) physiological hypertrophy of the glands caused by frequent ejaculations. The conducted research allows us to recommend the use of transrectal ultrasound in cases where a simpler and cheaper palpatory method does not give results.

Key words: spermogramma, additional sexual glands, sires, Holstein species, a rectal study.

pp. 94-102


M. Yu. Lapina

M. V. Abramova, Cand. Agr. Sci.

Federal Williams Research Center of Forage Production & Agroecology, Yaroslavl Scientific Research Institute of Livestock Breeding and Forage Production

1, Lenin St., Mikhailovsky Village, Yaroslavl District, Yaroslavskaya Oblast, Russia, 150517



The article presents the results of the study of linear traits of Holstein cattle in the herd of JSC «Plemzavod Yaroslavka» in the Yaroslavskaya Oblast. The total classification score of cows was carried out with the assignment of a complex class and fixing defects by body type. In 2014, 253 heads were estimated, and in 2019 – 146 heads of dairy cows of different ages. During the analyzed period, the first-calf cows increased height at the withers by 2.1 cm, and body length by 10.1 cm, and their body circumference increased by 4.1 cm. The cows of third lactation and older are characterized by high growth, deep, stretched body. The height at the withers and rump was 136.9 cm (+4.6 cm) and 141.5 cm (+3.3 cm). The oblique length of the torso, chest depth and width in the pelvic joints reached 170.2 cm, 80.7 cm and 28.6 cm, respectively (+19.7 cm, +4.6 cm and + 6.3 cm). According to the integrated assessment indicators, cows evaluated in 2019 had a noticeable superiority. The animals are characterized by a harmonious complexion with well-defined milk characteristics. The total score of cows in the herd in 2019 increased by 2.4 points to 88 points. The number of exterior defects in the herd has been significantly reduced, but among the total number, the most common are the roof-like rump and weak headstock, which make up 62.33% and 21.23%, respectively. In 2019, there was an increase in milk productivity of cows for the first lactation by 919 kg, for the third by 2636 kg, for the herd the milk yield increased by 1789 kg of milk. When using targeted selection and selection by body type in the selection process, a micropopulation was formed that has a strong constitution, is resistant to environmental conditions, and is able to realize the genetic potential.

Key words: dairy cattle, linear traits, dairy productivity, correlation.

pp. 103-109


S. V. Nikolaev, Cand. Vet. Sci.

Zhuravsky Institute of Agrobiotechnologies of Komi NC Uro RAS,

27, Rucheynaya St., Syktyvkar, Russia, 167023;

Vyatka State Agricultural Academy,

131, Oktyabrskyi Propsect St., Kirov, Russia, 610017



The Pechora zonal type (PKh-1) was obtained by crossing the Pechora offspring of Northern hornless cattle with the Kholmogorsky breed. Today, Kholmogorsky cattle are on the verge of extinction, which is due to the widespread absorption of domestic cattle by Holstein breed. “Agrokombinat Inta-Pripolarnaya” JSC of the Komi Republic is one of the few farms that have kept pure Kholmogorsky cattle of the Pechora type. The paper presents statistical processing and genetic evaluation of allele Kholmogory herd Pechora type (n=66) for 11 microsatellite loci: TGLA227, TGLA126, SPS115, TGLA53, TGLA122, INRA23, ETH225, BM2113, BM1818, BM1824, ETH10. The allele was assessed by determining the frequency and number of alleles (actual and effective) for the locus, extent, observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity, and fixation index (Fis). According to the research results, polymorphism is observed at all loci. The most polymorphic locus was TGLA53 – 10 alleles, and the least polymorphic BM1824-4 alleles. Of all loci, the allele 248 of the SPS115 locus was found with the highest frequency (0.606). The average number of alleles for 11 loci was 6.2, the number of effective alleles was 3.4, and the actual heterozygosity was 0.683. the Average expected heterozygosity (He) was 0.678. Excessive heterozygosity was observed at 6 loci: BM1818, SPS115, BM2113, INRA23, TGLA122, and the highest homozygosity was observed at the tgla126 locus (Ho=0.576, Fis = 0.139). On average, the values of actual and expected heterozygosity were slightly shifted towards the excess of heterozygotes (Fis = -0.004). Thus, the results reflect the characteristics of the microsatellite allelofund of the «reference model» Kholmogorsky breed, and the data obtained can be used to monitor genetic changes in the disappearing population.

Key words: Kholmogorskaya breed, gene-pool herd, microsatellites, allele, heterozygosity, fixation index.

pp. 109-115


T. N. Sivkova, Dr. Biol. Sci., Associate Professor

Perm State Agrarian-Technical University,

23, Petropavlovskaya, Perm, Russia, 614099



Commercial marine fish is a very popular food product, but given the fact that a significant amount of fish products are obtained from the natural environment, and, consequently, can be infested by a wide range of parasitic organisms, including potentially dangerous to human health. Due to the potential risk of infection of the people, the main task of veterinary and sanitary experts is to ensure the safety of hydrobionts, but often when determining the systematic affiliation of marine parasitic organisms, difficulties arise, leading to the inability to conduct an adequate veterinary and sanitary assessment of the infected products. In the Parasitology Laboratory of the Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry Faculty, we identified parasites detected during the standard procedure of veterinary and sanitary examination in Perm. The definition was performed based on morphological features, using the description in domestic and foreign sources. As a result, Cololabis saira (Brevoort, 1856) was infested with parasitic copepods from the genus Pennella (Oken, 1815). These crustaceans are not dangerous to human health, but they can cause a negative reaction from the consumer, negatively affecting the commercial type of fish products. According to current regulations, the sale of fish affected by pennells in the retail network is not allowed, such products must be sent for processing.

Key words: copepod, parasites, veterinary-sanitary expertise.

pp. 116-123


А. V. Khainovskiy, Postgraduate Student

Perm State Agrarian-Technical University,

23, Petropavlovskaya, Perm, Russia, 614099


A. A. Goldyrev, Cand. Agr. Sci.,


Perm Institute of the Federal Penal Service of Russia

125, Karpinskogo St., Perm, Russia, 614012


The article views the issues of right motivation for a dog to follow the trainer’s commands. The problem of studying behavior of dogs by human at different stages of their relationship is touched upon. The role of conflict in the formation of dog behavior is considered. A comparative analysis of traditional and modern methods of dog training is offered. Excessive control and mechanical actions are typical for traditional techniques of dog’s training and largely decrease their motivation. In contrast with such methods, modern techniques of conflict-free training exclude force totally and are based on a fundamental understanding of dog’s needs and reasons for motivation changes. The mechanism of dog training is considered. The paper explains how to arouse the dog’s interest to the training process. The factors influencing dogs’ motivation, their stress, and the whole the process of training are considered. Special attention is paid to description of the modern techniques of service dogs training and analysis of dog specialists’ mistakes. The main advantages of positive reinforcement in dog training are described: fast results, impulse control, attachment, calm training, stress reduction. The authors’ research insights in this field are also presented. In order to study modern conflict-free methods of dog training in 2019, an experiment was conducted on the basis of the Perm Institute of the Federal Penal Service of Russia. Dogs of the control group were trained according to the classical method with the use of mechanical action. The experimental group used a method without mechanical impact on the dog, based on positive reinforcement. Dogs using the modern method of training required significantly fewer repetitions of techniques to develop the necessary skill than dogs using the traditional method of training.

Key words:training dogs, positive reinforcement, conflict-free training, traditional training, modern training methods.