pp. 4-14


V. G. Mohnatkin, Dr. Tech. Sci., Professor

M. S. Poijrkov, Cand. Tech. Sci., Associate Professor

R. M. Gorbunov, Cand. Tech. Sci.

Vyatka State Agricultural Academy

133, Oktyabrskiy Prospect St., Kirov, Russia, 610017



To evaluate the working process of the feed shredder in order to specify a particular evaluation indicator for the process under study, a special criterion for evaluating the quality of crushed feed is proposed, which is defined as the degree of compliance of the granulometric composition of crushed particles with the established zootechnical requirements. The reference distribution curve of the crushed particles, which are their lower boundary, is constructed. Therefore, any class below this curve does not meet the requirements. This technique is applied in the implemented experiments to evaluate the operation of a rotary shredder with a vertical axial feed of material. In the conditions of the training and experimental field of the Vyatka State Agricultural Academy, studies of a vertical rotor shredder with an axial feed of material were conducted. Using one-factor experiments, the influence of humidity, material feed and rotor speed of the shredder on the weighted average length of the finished product particles and on the specific energy consumption for three types of working bodies – rectangular knives (analogous to a hammer), trapezoidal knives with a sharp cutting edge and knives with sharp curly edges was studied. It is established that from a practical point of view, the most acceptable is the first type of knife – a rectangular cross-section, which provides a more stable characteristic of the chopper and has greater manufacturability in production. At the second stage of research, the combined effect of the blade length, rotor speed, feed and humidity of the material was studied using the planning theory of active-passive experiment, which allows us to obtain mathematical models in the presence of non-regulated, but controlled factors (feed, humidity of the material). The analysis of the obtained models showed that the length of the knife has the greatest influence on the degree of grinding of the material. Moreover, this effect is most significantly manifested for knives with curly edges. For knives of rectangular and trapezoidal sections, an increase in the speed of rotation of the rotor contributes to an increase in the degree of grinding. For all three types of knives, the material feed practically does not affect the degree of product grinding, while humidity affects significantly and especially for rectangular knives. The influence of the studied factors on the energy intensity of the process for all three types of knives is the same, while the contribution of the fourth factor in relation to the others is insignificant. Thus, the formulation and processing of data from the active-passive experiment allowed us to evaluate the contribution of each of the studied factors to the operation of the rotary chopper. Based on the research materials, specific recommendations were developed for production.

Keywords: chopper, rotor speed, opener, mathematical model, the stalk, the moisture content of the material.

pp. 15-20


P. N. Solonshchikov, Cand. Techn. Sci., Associate Professor

E. V. Kosolapov, Cand. Techn. Sci., Associate Professor

Vyatka State Agricultural Academy

133, Oktyabrskiy Prospect St., Kirov, Russia, 610017



When assessing the operational properties of coarse feed grinders, it is necessary to take into account indicators such as performance, specific energy costs, which depend on the physical and mechanical properties of feed, in particular, on their density. On the other hand, feed density has an impact on the capacity of the feed grinder as a on a transport and technology vehicle. On the example of an experimental machine model for grinding and distribution of rough feed, which passed acceptance tests at the Kirov State Machine Testing Station, the patterns of changes in the volume and mass load capacity of the machine depending on the density of the feed were obtained. Studies on the experimental model of the machine have shown that the best result of using its bulk and mass load capacityηм=0.8 is provided at feed densityρ=140…150 kg/m3.

Keywords: grinder-dispenser, fodder, load capacity, utilization factor, fodder density, body volume.

pp. 20-30


A. V. Panova, Cand. Econom. Sci., Associate Professor

Vladimir State University named after Aleksander and Nicolay Stoletovs,

87, Gorky St., Vladimir, Russia, 600000



The issue of how to define an optimal route of machinery and vehicles at agricultural industrial complexes is considered. It is known that routes of machinery and vehicles at agricultural enterprises often include road segments of different categories. Thus, the choice of optimal route is nontrivial task because we need to take into account other factors, besides length, – natural wear, repair time, etc. For the calculating process automation related to the search of optimal route, the algorithm was developed in this paper, the Dijkstra’s algorithm was used as base model. The necessity to transform the original algorithm is explained by the account of non-linear factors in determining of distances between vertexes. The improved algorithm has an absolutely convergence. To assess the complexity of the developed algorithm its asymptotic analysis was done, the upper bound of complexity function is equal to O(n2), as well as for the Dijkstra’s algorithm. The flowchart of new algorithm and results of its test on the example of some transport network are provided in the article. The route constructed in the test turned out to be longer than other one, which was created in the search for the shortest way only on the basis of geometric distances. However, from an economic perspective it turned out to be more beneficial owing to lesser natural wear and repair time of vehicle. In general, we can affirm that the developed algorithm allows automating the process related to the search of optimal route of machinery and vehicles that in turn increases the efficiency of technological and logistic chains of agricultural enterprises.

Keywords: algorithm, automation, optimization, route, Dijkstra, costs, machinery, road categories.


pp. 31-38


B. B. Borisov, Graduate Student


Ch. M. Islamova, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor


I. Sh. Fatykhov, Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor


N. I. Mazunina, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor


Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy

16, Kirova St., Izhevsk, Russia, 426033


For 2017–2019 in competitive variety testing, the lowest average barley grain yield of 281 g/m2 was in the Pameti Chepeleva variety and the largest 357 — 367 g/m2 in the Belgorodskiy 100 and Raushan varieties. The grain yield of barley varieties had a strong positive correlation (r=0.83 … 0.88) with the density of the productive stalk, with the length and grain content of the spike. With the density of standing of productive plants for harvesting, with the height of the plants, with the weight of the grain of the ear, the grain yield had a positive average correlation (r = 0.40 … 0.69). Yields of 357 — 367 g/m2 of barley grain of the Raushan and Belgorodskiy 100 varieties were formed at 341 and 335 pcs/m2 of productive plants, 462 and 411 pcs/m2 of productive stems, 6.3 and 6. cm spike length, 18.2 and 17.0 pieces of grain, 0.84 and 0.88 g of the weight of the grain of the ear, respectively. The Chemelev Memory Variety was highly responsive to changing environmental conditions (bi = 1.16). Barley varieties Raushan and Sonnet (bi = 0.52 … 0.71) were characterized as a semi-intensive type with a weak reaction to the improvement of abiotic growing conditions. Varieties Belgorod 100 and Rodnik Prikamya are demanding for a high level of cultivation technology (bi=1.21 … 1.41). The highest stability index was observed in the varieties Raushan (0,07) and Rodnik Prikamya (0,00).

Keywords: barley, variety, yield, yield structure coefficient, plasticity, stability, adaptability, correlation.

pp. 39-46


K. R. Ismagilov, Cand. Econom. Sci., Associate Professor,

Bashkir State Agrarian University,

34, 50-letiya Oktyabrya St., Ufa, Russia, 450001



The article presents the results of assessing the agro-climatic conditions of maize cultivation in the Republic of Bashkortostan. The variety of agro-climatic resources on the territory of the Republic is shown, and their distribution is strongly influenced by the Ural mountains and mesorelief. The main limiting climatic resource for the successful cultivation and production of corn in the Republic of Bashkortostan is the heat supply, as well as the duration of the growing season. Moisture resources on the territory of the Republic in most years are sufficient for the formation of corn grain 50-60 centner per hectare, with the exception of the trans-Urals steppe. The heat supply of corn was estimated by the sum of active temperatures for a period with a temperature above 10 oC using long-term climate data from meteorological stations. The sum of active temperatures on the territory of the Republic varies from 1500 to 2400 degrees and three zones are allocated for this indicator: The first area with low heat for ripening corn, the second area with a heat sufficient for the cultivation of grain only early maturing hybrids of maize, the third zone for the cultivation of grain early maturing and mid-season corn hybrids. The terrain of the first zone, as well as in the Republic of Bashkortostan as a whole, is complex and highly rugged. In this zone, there are areas and fields with meso-and microclimate, in particular, heat resources sufficient for the maturation of early-maturing corn hybrids. Field experiments conducted in 2016-2018 in the Tatyshlinsky District of the Republic of Bashkortostan confirmed the possibility of obtaining waxy grain ripeness of early-maturing hybrids in fields with a southern slope.

Keywords: corn; sum of active temperatures; accommodation in the territory; Republic of Bashkortostan.

pp. 47-55


V. G. Kolesnikova, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor;

T. I. Pechnikova, Postgraduate Student,

Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy,

11, Studencheskaya St., Izhevsk, Udmurt Republic, Russia, 426069



The article presents the results of a three-year study of desiccants and their treatment time on oat crops in the Udmurt Republic. Field studies were conducted on the experimental field Iyulskoe, laboratory analyses – in the laboratory of the Crop Production Department of Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy. We studied three desiccants – Roundup, Basta and Reglon Super, which are intended for use in oat crops. Crops were treated with these desiccants in different terms. In the first variant, the processing of crops was carried out when the grain humidity reached 32-36 %, in the next four variants the processing was carried out three days after the previous processing. According to weather conditions (the amount of precipitation and average daily air temperature) the vegetation periods were different in different years. The growing season of Yakov oats in 2015 was characterized by waterlogged (GTC = 1.4), 2016 – arid (GTC = 0.6) and 2017 – excessively humid (GTC = 4.3). During three-year studies on sod-podzolic medium loam soil in the variant without desiccation, the yield of oats was 3.63 t / ha. In the variant where desiccation was carried out nine days after the first treatment, the yield increased to 4.19-4.40 t / ha. Data analysis shows that the studied desiccants when spraying crops in the variant nine days after the first treatment (with grain humidity of 32-36 %) contributed to the mass of 1000 seeds 39.7-39.1 g; reduced seed infection with Penicillium 2.1 – 3.2 % and Fusarium fungi 1.5 – 2.5 %; increase in laboratory germination of seeds by 94-93 %, respectively.

Keywords: oats, desiccants, processing time, yield, seed mass, disease infestation, germination.

pp. 56-62


N. M. Mudrykh, Cand. Agr. Sci.,

Perm State Agro-Technological University

23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm, Russia, 614990


L. V. Bessonova, Senior Researcher,

R. I. Vyatkina, Senior Researcher,

Perm Agriculture Institute of Russian Academy

of Sciences PFIC UrB RAS,

12, Kultury Street, v. Lobanovo, Perm District, Permskiy Kray, Russia, 614532



The article presents an assessment of the oat varieties recommended for cultivation in the territory Permskiy Kray according to the main technological and biochemical indicators of grain quality. The samples were taken from eleven glumiferous and one naked oat varieties. By yield, the studied varieties can be divided into three groups: more than 4.5 t/ha (Stipler, Garmoniya), 3.5-4.5 (Ulov, Dens, Tifon, Uralets, Troyka, Konkur, Sprint-2, Stayyer) and less than 3.5 t/ha (Vladyka, Universal 1). The range of variation in the mass of 1000 grains is 23.8-53.2 g. The lowest value of this indicator is noted in the naked oat variety Vladyka, the highest – in the glumiferous oat Garmoniya. In the forage varieties, the largest grain was formed in the Stayyer variety. With a low husk content, the varieties Garmoniya (20.1-21.4 %) and Stipler (22.1%) were distinguished. Of the forage varieties, the Universal 1 was distinguished by the maximum number of husks (29.9-30.9 %). In the grain of the Ulov and Garmoniya varieties, the protein content was the highest 16.9-20.5 %. The naked oat variety Vladyka was not inferior to the glumiferous varieties (16.4 — 18.8%). Vladyka, Uralets, Sprint-2 and Stayyer were distinguished by higher oil content among other varieties. The amount of mineral substances varies from 1.1 to 3.4% depending on the variety. The lowest ash content was observed in the Garmoniya variety (1.1-1.5 %). The range of variability of oat grain acidity is 2.9-7.6 deg. Troyka and Stayyer varieties were distinguished by their higher acidity. Biochemistry analysis showed that the resulting grain of high-quality oat varieties can be used for processing into cereals. A correlation was established between the technological and biochemical parameters: a significant direct relationship between the mass of 1000 grains with the hoodness (r = 0.66) and a negative one – with the fat content in the grain (r = -0.66). There is a significant inverse relationship between the hoodness of a grain and the amount of oil in oat grain (r = -0.69).

Keywords: weight of 1000 grains, hoodness, protein, fat, ash, acidity, food grain.

pp. 63-71


N. V. Safina, Research Associate,

T. V. Kilyanova, Senior Research Associate

Ulyanovsk Agricultural Research Institute –

Branch of SamSC Russian Academy of Sciences,

19, Institutskaya St., Timiryazevsky Village, Ulyanovsky District,

Ulyanovskaya Oblast, Russia, 433315



The main crop of seed oil production in the districts of the Ulyanovskaya Oblast is sunflower. However, with the spread of the dangerous parasitic plant broomrape agricultural producers began to pay attention to other promising crops. Climate change in the Middle Volga region also encourages the study and introduction of high-yielding and drought-resistant oilseed crops into production. Great interest was aroused in such a culture as safflower. The most significant aspects of this work are the determination of the method of culture seeding (ordinary, cross-row, wide-row), seeding rates (400, 500, 600 and 700 thousand units of germinating seeds per hectare) and the biological efficiency of modern agrochemicals that were used to treat crops during the budding phase (amicide, boron-molybdenum) for guaranteed harvesting of safflower. The research was conducted on Chernozem soils of the Middle Volga region of the Ulyanovskaya Oblast in a moderate continental climate in 2018-2019. It was found that the yield of safflower seeds of the Yershovsky 4 variety depends largely on the presence of soil moisture in the phase of swelling and germination of seeds. The lack of moisture during this period in 2019 provoked the development of fusariosis, which adversely affected the further development of the culture. The highest yield was recorded on wide-row crops with a seeding rate of 400 thousand pcs / ha of germinated seeds, the yield for years was 10.1-5.3 t / ha. It is advisable to introduce agrochemicals for growing plants, the yield increase was 8-19% of the control variant. A larger oil harvest per 1 hectare was also observed in the wide-row method of seeding with a minimum seeding rate of boron-treated molybdenum – 293-228 kg in 2018, 174-164 kg in 2019. As a result, it was found that the sowing of safflower variety Yershovsky 4 should be carried out in a wide-row method with a row width of 60 cm and a seeding rate of 400 thousand pcs / ha of germinating seeds, when treated with the agrochemical boron-molybdenum in the budding phase at a dose of 1.5 l / ha.

Keywords: safflower, agrochemicals, yields, yield of oil, the fat content.

pp. 71-80


O. M. Snigireva, Graduate Student

Y. E. Vedernikov, Cand. Agr. Sci., Senior Researcher

Federal Agricultural Research Center of the North-East

named N. V. Rudnitsky,

166 a, Lenin St., Kirov, Russia, 610007



The growing technogenic pressure on the environment, the need for resource conservation and greening agricultural production requires the development and application of qualitatively new plant protection technologies. The use of biological products based on various active substances as an alternative to chemicals is one of the tools to ensure the agroecological stability of field biocenoses, increase productivity and obtain biologically complete products. Objective is to study the effect of new growth regulators on the development of fungal diseases of spring wheat of the early ripening variety Bazhenka in the agro-climatic conditions of the Kirovskaya Oblast. The studies were carried out in 2015-2017 in the Seed Production Department of the Federal State Budgetary Institution of Health Sciences of the North-East. The soil of the experimental plot is sod-podzolic, medium loamy. The predecessor is fallow. The plot area is 1.8 m2, the repetition of the experiment is 4 times. For presowing seed disinfection (OS) in the experiment, a systemic chemical fungicide Bunker was used. The drug was used both in pure form and as part of tank mixtures. To attenuate the negative effects of the chemical protectant, biological growth regulators were used: Emistim R and Albit (biofungicide, antistressant) in recommended doses. The conditions of the spring-summer vegetation prevailing in 2015-2017 were different in temperature and moisture supply. Grain dressing protects crops from root rot only in the first half of the growing season, in the second the disease manifests itself again and the degree of damage reaches its previous values. A decrease in the development of the disease occurred only in the variants when seeds were treated with growth regulators in their pure form. Seed treatment with tank mixtures was less effective. There is a tendency that the studied pesticides exhibit the highest biological efficacy in relation to root infections than leaf stains. In general, more severe damage by leaf diseases was detected in excessively wet years of 2015 and 2017 compared to the dry year of 2016. On average, over the years of research, the greatest decrease in the disease compared with the control was noted in the OS Bunker + Emistim R + OP Emistim R, OS Bunker, OS + OP Albit variants.

Keywords: spring wheat, growth regulators, root rot, septoria.

pp. 80-89


E. V. Sokolova, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor


T. N. Tutova, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor


T. E. Ivanova, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor


L. A. Nesmelova, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor


Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy

16, Kirova St., Izhevsk, Udmurt Republic, Russia, 426033

V. M. Merzlyakova, Cand. Agr. Sci.


Izhevsk Agricultural Engineering College

81, Avtonomnaya St., Izhevsk, Udmurt Republic, Russia, 426010


In today’s world, there is an increasing interest of the population in a healthy diet, and hence the consumption of vegetables. Nutrition in the off-season period is designed to provide greenhouse vegetable growing. One of the leading greenhouse crops is tomato. High productivity, wide distribution, good taste, and variety of uses have made it one of the most common cultures. With the advent of new tomato varieties and hybrids, their study and selection of the most suitable for cultivation in the conditions of greenhouse vegetable growing in the Udmurt Republic is relevant. The results of studies of indeterminate tomato hybrids characteristics grown in the protected ground of the Udmurt Republic are presented. The studies were conducted at Zavyalovsky Greenhouse Plant JSC in 2011–2017 in modern block greenhouses when growing tomatoes using low-volume technology in winter-spring circulation. Phenological observations revealed that tomato hybrids F1 T-34, F1 Yakimanka, F1 Ochakov, F1 Grodena, F1 Admiro, F1 Bizarr, F1 Komit, F1 Izmail were more early-ripening in 2011–2012. Tomato hybrids studied in 2015–2017 developed at the same level; no differences in the dates in the beginning of phenological phases were found in tomato. The greatest differences in biometric indicators were noted for the length of the main stem. In the phase of full fruiting during the years of research, it was from 498.0 to 595.4 cm. A strong correlation between yield on the length of the stem and the number of leaves was observed only in the F1 Ismail hybrid. A close correlation between tomato productivity and stem length was found in the hybrid F1 Yakimanka, F1 Bizarr and F1 Komit in 2011-2012. In 2015-2017, a close correlation between tomato productivity and stem length was found in the F1 Foronti hybrid in the fruiting phase. The average positive correlation of yield from the number of leaves can be traced in the F1 Torero and F1 Foronti hybrids.

Keywords: tomato hybrids, protected ground, bio-metric indicators, Udmurt Republic, correlation dependence.

pp. 89-97


A. A. Shishkin, Postgraduate Student;

E. D. Akmanaev, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor;

A. S. Bogatyreva, Cand. Agr. Sci.,

Perm State Agro-Technological University,

23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm, Russia, 614990



The article presents the results on the yield and economic assessment of sowing methods and rates of sowing spring rapeseed of Ratnik variety and Smilla hybrid in the Middle Preduralie. The assessment was made based on the results of a field three-factor experience conducted in 2017-2019 on the turf-fine-grained heavy-grained soil of the training and scientific experimental field of the Perm State Agro-Technological University. The economic assessment of the techniques for sowing spring rapeseed was carried out on the basis of yield, level of expenses and revenue obtained from the sale of oil seeds for fodder. Production costs for cultivating crops were carried out according to technological maps at comparable prices in 2020. As a result of the calculations, the cost price, net income and level of profitability of the studied options were determined. The highest yield of the Ratnik variety was obtained in the version with a combination of a wide-range sowing method and a sowing rate of 3 million pcs/ha (2.09 t/ha). The Smilla hybrid also generated the greatest yield at a sowing rate of 3 million pcs/ha for both methods of sowing. Regarding the results of the economic assessment, the highest profitability (138%) and net profit (33.945 thousand rubles/ha) were noted in the Ratnik variety. The largest profitability of Smilla hybrid seeds was 46%. The low level of profitability of the foreign hybrid is due to the significant production costs associated with high purchase prices for seed material.

Keywords: spring rape, variety, hybrid, sowing method, sowing rate, yield, economic assessment.


pp. 98-107


E. V. Baydak, Postgraduate Student

N. B. Nikulina, Dr. Vet. Sci., Associate Professor

V. M. Aksenova, Dr. Boil. Sci., Professor

Perm State Agro-Technological University,

23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm, Russia, 614990



The authors studied the hematological status of young milking cows of black-motley breed weighing 490-520 kg at the age of 1-2 lactation in the first phase of lactation, contained in one of the farms of Permskiy Kray. Zoo-hygienic parameters of the cow-house met the regulatory requirements. An imbalance of nutrients in the diet of animals was noted. A change in clinical status was observed, which was manifested by symptoms of bursitis in one animal and by clinical signs of malfunctioning of the gastrointestinal tract in another cow. In clinically healthy animals, blood hemoglobin content, average erythrocyte concentration, hematocrit, neutrophil number did not reach lower limits of average values, and blood eosinophils quantity was significantly reduced compared to reference values. Platelet link values in all cows were consistent with reference values. A sharp increase in ISE and a decrease in LIS compared to the average were recorded. In the blood of the sick animals, an increase in the number of erythrocytes and leukocytes in the blood, hemoglobin, hematocrit, the number of neutrophils and eosinophils and a simultaneous decrease in the number of platelets and thrombocrit compared to those of healthy cows were noted. The sorption capacity of erythrocytes in sick animals increased compared to that of healthy cattle. The features of hematological status revealed by the authors in clinically healthy cows are due to adaptation reactions of the body, both to technological processes and to physiological births and lactation. The development of pathological processes in two animals and deeper disorders of hematological status can be a consequence of individual sensitivity of the body to the factors noted by the authors.

Keywords: dairy cows, hematological status, integral indices, age.

pp. 107-114


E. M. Bachurina, Cand. Аgr. Sci.

V. I. Polkovnikova, Cand. Аgr. Sci., Associate Professor

Perm State Agro-Technological University

23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm, Russia, 614990



The article presents data on the evaluation of stud horses of the Orlov trotting breed at the Urozhay LLC stud farm on breeding qualities: exterior, action, quality of offspring. The assessment of the results of breeding stallions at an early stage is necessary, since they form the breeding core of the Orlov trotting breed in the Western Urals, and it is a common practice at the stud farm «Urozhay». The Orlov trotter is a unique breed in the history of both domestic and world animal husbandry. It has good exterior characteristics. Expert assessment for the exterior of stud horses ay Urozhay LLC was 3.87 – 4.25 points, which indicates a good degree of development of the body and backbone. Action is an important indicator that objectively characterizes the sporting career of the Orlov trotter. The best speed at the distance of 1600 meters showed the stud horse Hayduk of Peony line – 2.05,0 minutes, at the second place was the stud horse Manok of Koreshok with the action 2.10,0 minutes, the worst result was shown by the stallion Ubytok of Boltik line – 2.20,1. When determining the influence of the exterior on the action qualities, a correlation coefficient (rs) equal to +0.5 was obtained, which indicates that the relationship between the signs is positive and close. From the data, the higher the score for the exterior is, the higher the horse’s action indicators. The descendants of the stud horse Hayduk showed the highest action of 2.10,1 minutes compared to the offspring of other stallions, which indicates a more successful breeding of the Peony line.

Keywords: line, breed, action, exterior, measurements, offspring, stallions-producers, competitions.

pp. 114-121


АА. Sboev,


87, Promyshlennaya St., Perm, Russia, 614065


V. А. Sitnikov, Cand. Agr.Sci., Associate Professor,

Perm State Agro-Technological University

23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm, Russia, 614990



In the scientific and economic experiment conducted in 2019 at the production base of PLAZA CITY LLC, it was tested the drug «ORGANIC LOGOS ZOO» obtained by extraction from vegetable raw materials, containing folic, fulvic and humic acid, and active additives to them. The aim of the study is to identify the general mechanisms of the drug’s effects on the growth, activity and biochemistry of broilers. The conditions of feeding the bird with full balanced feed feeds, dosages of 16.67 mg/L and 61.09 mg/L, which the experimental groups received with drinking water, were studied. It was found that the dose of 16.67 mg/l of water increased the average daily growth of broiler chickens from the seven-day age of 40 in the first experimental group to 89.76 g (2.64 % to control), and the dose 61.09 mg/L lowered (-1.93% in comparison with control). Both dosages did not have a negative effect on the biochemical composition of the blood, but in the experimental groups there was a significant reduction in the content of phosphorus, creatinine urea. Lower broiler growth in the second experimental group compared to the control group from an increased dose of 61.09 mg/L, the authors believe, is associated with overdose. The link between the dosage of the product, the weight of broilers and the blood content of phosphorus, urea and creatinine was revealed, which makes further research predictable and targeted. The dose of the drug input 16.67 mg per kg of live mass is excessive and the estimated optimal dose will be from 6 to 10 mg per kg of live mass, as the drug has had a high biochemical effect on the body of broilers.

Keywords: chickens, humic acids, dose, average daily gain body, measurements, blood biochemistry.

pp. 122-132


R. A. Ulimbasheva, Сand. Agr. Sci. Research Associate

Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution «North Caucasian Agrarian Center»

49, Nikonova St., Mikhailovsk, Stavropolskiy Kray, Russia, 356241



The purpose of the research was to establish the compensatory-adaptive mechanisms of Karachai sheep kept in different conditions, and also distilled to pastures in summer with different heights above sea level. The studies were carried out on sheep of Karachai breed belonging to the pedigree reproducer Dargan LLC of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic kept in the pasture year-round at the altitude of 2200 m above sea level (group I), in the foothills with the use of summer pastures in summer (group II) and with distant-mountain maintenance in the grazing period at the altitude of 1200 (group III) and 2200 m (group IV) above sea level (a.s.l.). It was carried out the investigation of hematological, clinical status indicators and resistance during the formation of animals’ groups of the age of 4 months, at the age of 4.5 months on the 5th day of stay in the pasture, in 6 months is on the 50th day and 9 months after returning from pasture (at the end of grazing period) according to generally accepted methods. It was established that in the rams of groups I, II and III, the clinical indicators were at a lower level than in peers of the foothill keeping, especially during high positive air temperature. Regardless of age and place of keeping, the highest hemoglobin content in the blood was characteristic in rams of year-round pasture keeping, they are also differed in more intense phagocytosis, which is an adaptive reaction to mountain hypoxia. The transfer of sheep to pastures of various heights was also accompanied by an increase in the concentration of hemoglobin and phagocytic activity of blood neutrophils. The growing of young Karachai breed under conditions of year-round keeping in the mountains and according to the technology of distant-mountain maintenance is less stressful for the organs and tissues of organism, in contrast to the content in foothills, especially in summer, which provides the best adaptation to the altitude zonality of the North Caucasian territories.

Keywords: sheep, Karachai breed, altitude zonation, clinical status, hematological profile, resistance.