pp. 3-10


A.A. Vasiliev, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,
SSI South Ural Research Institute of Horticulture and Potato, Chelyabinsk, Russia
V.S. Zybalov, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor, Department of Agriculture and MRP, FSBEI HPE Chelyabinsk State Academy of Agroengineering, Chelyabinsk, Russia
А.А. Skriabin, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor
FSBEI HPE Perm State Agricultural Academy
23, Petropavlovskaia st. Perm 614990 Russia

Currently, productivity of potato in the forest-steppe of South Ural does not exceed 15 t/hectare. The main reason consists in lack of a scientifically reasonable approach to its cultivation, especially related to varieties of intensive type. In the conditions of the deficiency of manure, sideration is the main solution for the problem of preservation and increase of soil fertility. The analysis of experimental data of scientific institutions of the Urals, and also the results of the own research showed that the use of summer colza and other green manure crops as green fertilizer has the complex impact on fertility and a phytosanitary condition of the soil. The purpose of the research of 2008-2011 was studying of the possibility to receive programmable potato yields of 40 t/hectare in the conditions of the forest-steppe zone of South Ural. It is established that the basic elements for obtaining programmable productivity of potatoes are: 1) cultivation of highly productive varieties adapted for local conditions; 2) application of the balanced doses of mineral fertilizers established by a balance method; 3) the optimum planting density depending on the production purpose; 4) the use of protective-stimulating drugs for pre-seed tubers. The optimum combinations of elements provide programmable productivity of food potatoes of 40 t/hectare in the varieties Gubernator, Spiridon, Tarasov, and Balabai in the planting scheme of 75х24 cm; and the highest output of seed tubers fraction with 1 hectare in the planting scheme of 75х19 cm. The variation of productivity of potatoes in the forest-steppe zone of South Ural was defined by the level of the balanced mineral nutrition (a factor contribution – 42.7-54.4%), planting density (15.5-46.6%), seed dressing (19.9 %), and a genotype (7.2-8.0%). Depending on the experience, the value of a variety increased in extreme conditions of 2010 when 17.0-23.4% of a variation of productivity depended on a choice of a variety.
Key words: potato, green manure, balanced mineral nutrition, planting density, seed dressing, programmable productivity, collecting tubers of seed fraction.

pp. 10-18


А. V. Dedov, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor,
FSBEI HPE Voronezh SAU named after Emperor Peter I,
1, Michurina st. Voronezh 394068 Russia
М. А. Nesmeianova, Post-Graduate Student,
FSBEI HPE Voronezh SAU named after Emperor Peter I,
Т. А. Kuznetsova, Degree-Seeker,
FSBEI HPE Voronezh SAU named after Emperor Peter I

Nowadays the biological function of farming is the most promising direction ensuring the conservation of soil fertility and increase of profitability of crops. An important role is given to the saturation of crop rotation with environment-improving cultures that enrich the soil with organic substances and nitrogen, mobilize the remote forms of phosphorus and potassium and improve water-physical soil properties, which can be achieved through the development of interspecific agrophytocenosis of sunflower and winter wheat with leguminous herbs. The purpose of our research was to study the influence of the complex technologies of biologisation (straw, sideration and forage legumes) and primary processing of soil fertility parameters to typical black soils and crop rotation. Analyses and observations were carried out according to the standard technologies. Structural-aggregate composition of the soil and its water-resistance were determined by the method of dry and wet sieving (N.I. Savvinov’s method). The available moisture content in the soil was determined by the gravimetric method. The content of detritus was determined by the method of N.F. Gandjara. The soil content of mobile phosphorus and potassium exchange was determined by Chirikov’s method. The content of nitrate nitrogen was determined by colorimetric method. The content of ammonium nitrogen was determined by colorimetric method with the use of Nesler reagent. This article deals with the results of research of the Department of Agriculture at the Voronezh State Agricultural University of cultivation of leguminous grasses in binary sown area with sunflower and winter wheat coupled with the application of green manure crops. So, the set of techniques of biologization at the level of crop rotation using blue alfalfa allowed us to ensure a more rational consumption of available moisture and fundamental nutrients, to increase the rate structure (7%) and water strength of soil (9.2%), to increase of soil detritus (70%), to obtain a significantly higher yield of sunflower (3.9-7.2%) and barley (3%). As a result, it was found, that the complex of biologization techniques and binary sown area has positive effects on the basic indicators of typical black soils fertility and crop yields.
Key words: fertility, structure, water strength, organic substances, crop yields.

pp. 18-23


Svetlana Kapustyanchik, Candidate of Biological Sciences, SPIN-код: 4981-7849.
The Siberian Research Institute of Soil Management and Chemicalization of Agriculture

Application of the landscape approach in the estimation of spring wheat agrocenosis is the actual direction. It is connected with high variability of the microclimatic and agrochemical properties of soils on different elements of the relief. These properties affect the condition of crops, yield and grain quality of crops. The purpose of research was to reveal the regularities in spatial heterogeneity and assess agro-landscapes of spring wheat agrocenosis. The timeline of phenological development phases of spring wheat yield, structure elements, and yield and grain quality of the crop was estimated in work on different elements of the relief (plakor and padding). Result of the research was to establish the differences in the timing of phenological development phases of spring wheat in different elements of the relief. The duration of the growing season in the padding increased by 7 days compared to the plakor. The estimate has identified the heterogeneity of yield structure on different elements of the relief. Value of the productive tillering in padding is 1.4 in the lower position and on plakor — 1.1. The number of wheat grains ranged from 19 pieces on the plakor to 21 in the lower position padding. The highest yield of spring wheat formed in padding, but the gluten content in grain is higher on plakor. The spring wheat in padding is 2.36 t/ha, on plakor — 2.27 t/ha. The gluten value in padding varies between 24-27%. The corn on plakor formed with maximum gluten content — 29%. Thus, the application of the landscape approach in the estimation of spring wheat agrocenosis brings out heterogeneity of agro-landscapes on a complex of features – the difference of terms of phenological phases, the spatial heterogeneity of yield and grain quality of spring wheat. The prospective of adapted use of cropland is precise agriculture with the newest means and advanced navigation equipment.
Key words: element of relief, phenological phase, yield, quality of grain, spring wheat.

pp. 23-29


G.P. Maisak, Cand.Agr.Sci., Head of Feed Production department,
12 Kultury st., Lobanovo 614532 Permskii krai, Russia
L.А. Mikhailova, Dr. Agr.Sci., Professor,
М.А. Alioshin, Cand.Agr.Sci., Associate Professor,
23 Petropavlovskaia, Perm 614990 Russia

Nowadays, the main trend in grain production is increase of grain output – increase of productivity by means of the introduction of new cultivars and sorts, whole use of their potential possibilities and improvement of the agro-technique. Grain crops play an important role in the solution of the problem of feed supply for animal breeding. For recent years, the areas sowed with such crop as triticale – one of the ‘youngest’ and prospective crops in the world – significantly have grown. Triticale is characterized by high productivity and quality of output, raised resistance to deceases and climate conditions. At the protein content (14…19 %) triticale grain excels rye and wheat grain. In the triticale grain, the content of lysine is 15…20 % higher than in wheat and rye grain. Triticale is a good feed crop with high nutritional qualities. Its grain is used as fodder for farm livestock and poultry. Therefore, replacement up to 40 % of grain of other crops in common mixed feed by triticale grain increases average daily gain in fattening swine up to 30 %, and feed save makes 15…20 %. Using triticale herbage for feeding dairy cattle, milk yield increases by 12…14 %, fat content in milk – by 0.2…0.3 %, gain of young cattle – by 15…17 % in comparison with feeding with wheat herbage. Triticale grain is used in baking and confectionary industries, as well as for alcohol and industrial starch production. Winter triticale is a cultivar of multi-use. Its herbage is used to gain early green fodder, prepare granules, silage, haylage. Cheaper and more qualitative triticale fodder is obtained by growing the crop for grain-haylage. In this case, we can note the combination of significant biomass with its high nutritional value. In the experimental field of SRE Perm RIA of RAA we laid one factorial field experiment on the typical for Preduralie sod-podzol heavy loamy soil of middle improvement. We obtained the results of productivity of single-crop and mixed sowings of winter grain cultivars, and determined the dynamics of mineral nitrogen for three months of vegetation period. Cultivation technology of winter triticale for fodder and grain in the mixture with winter vicia, according to preliminary data, will allow obtaining fodder with exchange energy concentration from 10 to 12 MJ/kg of dry matter.
Key words: winter triticale, winter vicia, single-crop and mixed sowings, dynamics of mineral nitrogen in soil.

pp. 29-34


P.A. Postnikov, Cand. Agr.Sci.,
V.V. Popova, Cand. Sci.,
The State Scientific Organization Ural Research Institute of Agriculture of RAAS
21 Glavnaia st., Ekaterinburg 620061 Russia
Cultivation of clover in field crop rotations is an important factor for increase of gathering high-protein from arable land, increasing the fertility of arable land due to input of organic matter and nutrients from plants residues, and accumulation of biological nitrogen at the expense of an nitrogen fixing bacteria from the atmosphere. Agricultural reform led to a narrowing of the species composition of field crops in farms, which necessitated the development it is short rotation of a crop rotations, where it is important to determine the place to long-term bean herbs. The purpose of research is to reveal efficiency of a clover depending on after-effect of a background of food and a place in a crop rotation. On the dark gray loamy soil in a stationary field experiment, we studied field crop rotations with saturation with bean grass herbs from 20 to 40%. Productivity of clover depended on the after-effect of a background of food a little, the level of the efficiency of a bean grass in years depended on moisture of the soil in June and July. Receiving collecting green mass of clover for two mowed crops of clover at the level of 35-40 t/hectare is possible at hydrothermal coefficient for the vegetative period not lower than 1.4. After-effect on the background of mineral and organic fertilizers revealed elevated levels of 1 kg of feed protein, fat, and on cellulose – the return regularity is revealed. At one-year use of clover, collecting dry weight at two mowing varied at the level of 5.1-5.5t, digestible protein – 650-720 kg/hectare. In the conditions of insufficient moistening of the soil and high temperatures of air for the third year of life of a bean grass its efficiency decreased by 14-17% in comparison with the one-year use.
Key words: clover, crop rotation, food background, herbage, productivity.


pp. 35-42


V.S. Koshman – Cand.Eng.Sci.,
Perm State Agricultural Academy
23 Petropavlovskaia, Perm 614990 Russia

The state of contemporary theory of thermo-physical properties of metals does not allow finding numeric values of their thermal conductivity and heat capacity per unit volume coefficients, only in a small number of particular cases enables pre-calculating their quantitative characteristics. Basic source of knowledge in this case remains natural experiment. Common knowledge is contradictory and dissipated on different literature sources. Along with it, accumulated experience data requires generalization. Mendeleev periodic table and offered integral characteristic of substance thermo-physical properties is proposed to serve as the basis of generalization. It combines thermal conductivity coefficient, specific heat capacity of substances at constant pressure and their density, and is obtained taking into account equality of thermal currents by thermal conductivity on Fourier’s law and radiation from surface on Stefan-Boltzmann law. Obtained equation, along with known from kinetic theory Debye’s formula, is used for conclusion of design formulas. The paper contains the results of experiment data generalization on thermal conductivity coefficient, isobar specific thermal capacity and density of simple solid substances – elements of Mendeleev periodic table. The authors proposed the ratios to determine metal thermal conductivity, average length of free range of electrons and average rate of their movement. The obtained formulas are confirmed by experiment data for a number of pure metals at room temperature. Obtained data particularly laid the foundation for solution of the problem of metal single-crystal growing from their alloys, and is of practical interest for the recovery of nods of agricultural machines, technological equipment of produced, processed and stored agrarian output as well.
Key words: experiment data, thermal conductivity coefficient, isobar specific thermal capacity, density, complex of thermo-physical properties, periodic table, average length of free range of electrons, average movement rate of electrons in metals.


pp. 43-55


A.A. Vasiliev, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Head of the Department of Soil Science,
A.N. Chashchin, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor,
E.S. Lobanova, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Head of laboratory,
M.V. Razinsky, Post-Graduate Student
Perm State Agricultural Academy
23 Petropavlovskaia, Perm 614990 Russia

Object of study was soil cover in Perm and Chusovoi.
The purpose of the study is to establish the degree of deviation from stoichiometry, concentration of structural defects, the morphology and chemical composition of magnetite in soils of Perm and Chusovoi.
Magnetite in soils of Perm and Chusovoi is non-stoichiometric. Magnetite concentration of structural defects is from 0.02 to 0.22. In highly magnetic and simultaneously highly contaminated with heavy metals urbanozem roadside territories of Perm, degree of deviation from stoichiometry is less than in weakly urbanozem soils of internal territories.
In polluted with heavy metals and technozems urbanity gray humus soil in the micro-district «Old Town» in Chusovoi, the degree of deviation from stoichiometry «S» is 1.1-1.2 times higher than in the forest low magnetic sod- podzolic soil in the territory of the micro-district «New Town» where magnetite may have biogenic origin. Some magnetite particles of soil in Chusovoi are spherical and «similar to takyzles satine» surface spherules, spherules diameter is 0.02-0.03 mm. Magnetite spherules in sod-podzolic soil consist of iron — 70.45%, and oxygen — 28.49% by weight. As the impurities on the surface of spherules or by isomorphous substitution in the lattice of iron magnetite its chemical composition comprises: Si – 0.5% by weight, Al – 0.28, Ca – 0.14, Ti – 0.13. Spherules in highly magnetic magnetite technozem have a high iron content (74-77 %), part of the iron ions in magnetite partially replaced by cations of chromium, titanium, calcium, which is a consequence of the process of production of titan-magnetite by Chusovoi Metallurgical Works alloyed iron and steel.
Key words: magnetite, spherules, mossbauer parameters, microprobe diagnostics, heavy metals, magnetic susceptibility.

pp. 55-59


T.P. Larkina, Cand.Bio. Sci., Assoc. Prof.
Perm State Agricultural Academy
23 Petropavlovskaia st., Perm 614990 Russia


Fragaria vesca in the Permskii krai is represented by three ecotypes: forest, meadow and rock. Under ecotype we mean the set of closely cenopopulations of one species formed under the influence of certain environmental factors and natural selection; able to reproduce not only in constant conditions of existence, but also protractedly saving the morphological and anatomical features during transference in another environment . Forest and meadow ecotypes are cenotic type related to the terms of certain plant communities. Rocky xerophytic ecotype should be classified as edaphic ecotype, as the leading role in its formation belongs to the soil substrate. Forest ecotype grows under the canopy of bleached hardwood, mixed and coniferous forests. Plants are tall, large-fruit, the leaves are of typical mesomorphic structure. The meadow ecotype of Fragaria vesca grows at the extensive forest clearings, forest edges, open meadows and gentle slopes. Size of leaves, fruits, plants of this ecotype are smaller than those of the forest ecotype. It has mesomorphic anatomical structure, but sometimes (on the southern slopes and edges) is showing signs of xeromorphism. Rocky xerophytic ecotype is found on the southern slopes of the outputs of limestone. The samples of rocky ecotypes undersized fruit are twice smaller than in the forest ecotype plants. Leaves are small, pinned to the ground, with dense pubescence; their anatomical structure is xeromorphic. In easily accessible to the public habitats state, cenopopulations of strawberry timber is deteriorating, which is especially characteristic for cenopopulations representing meadow ecotype. The devastating forest fires, often caused by population, are fatal for the cenopopulation of forest ecotypes confined to pine forest. The cenopopulations of forest ecotype on burnt forest would not reverse during decades.
Key words: Fragaria vesca, cenopopulation, cenotic ecotype, edaphic ecotype, mesomorphism, xeromorphism.


pp. 60-65


E.S. Kazanovsky, Dr.Vet.Sci.,
V.P. Karabanov, Senior Researcher,
K.A. Klebenson, Senior Researcher,
SNU RIA of Republic of Komi,
27 Rucheinaia st. Syktyvkar 167003 Republik of Komi, Russia
The purpose of the work is improvement of carrying out mass antiepizootic actions in northern reindeer breeding on the basis of a complete set of new treatment-and-prophylactic preparations.
One of the factors which are negatively influencing safe development of reindeer breeding is emergence and distribution of diseases in deer of various character, as over 50% of all unproductive losses are noted at the expense of a case of sick animals, fall of quality of production, decrease in additional weights and rejection of the struck bodies and tissues.
The most dangerous for reindeer breeding and widespread diseases in the region of the European North of Russia, demanding unrelenting attention of veterinary experts and against which it is necessary to hold annually mass veterinary and preventive and medical events, are anthrax, oedemagenosis, necrobacillosis and a row helminthiasis (echinococcosis, cysticercosis, strongylatosis and so forth).
In reindeer-breeding farms of Bolshezemelskaya Tundra annually practically all livestock of deer is vaccinated against anthrax and treated against oedemagenosis. These are two very labor-consuming and enough expensive processes. Authors realized idea of combination of mass processings on the basis of application of composition being applied a vaccine and preparations from group iver-, avermectins that lowers labor costs twice. Along with the preparations tested earlier it is possible to apply composition of a vaccine of a strain 55 and ganamectin for these purposes. Compatibility of preparations, their harmlessness for an organism of deer is studied and 100% treatment-and-prophylactic efficiency of composition is established.
Economic efficiency of work consists in prevention of outbreaks of an epizooty of anthrax and increase of the income of reindeer-breeding farms for 27% as a result of pharmacotherapy of oedemagenosis.
Scientific novelty of work is that nobody has carried out the similar studies earlier.
Key words: reindeer breeding, oedemagenosis, anthrax, vaccination, pharmacotherapy, iver-, avermectins, technology, corral.


pp. 66-70


М.S. Karetnikova, Post-Graduate Student,
Kuban State Agrarian University
13 Kalinin st. Krasnodar 350044 Russia

For Russia, as well as for other states, the question of food security is topical. Agriculture provides the population with nutrition, and processing industry – with row materials. More than half of consumed goods is produced of the final products of agriculture. Therefore, we must acknowledge the strategic significance of effectiveness of this branch that immediately affects the level of the population wealth. Food security of a country being a component of its national security is a guarantee of sustainable gratification of population’s need for food. The paper contains the analyses of agriculture development dynamics in Russia, population employment and agrarian share in gross domestic product, as well as comparison of branch situation in Russia and some European countries in general. Solution of agrarian issues is a priority task of economic theory. In 2009-2011, the share of agriculture in GDP constituted 5.49 %, 5.55 % и 6.5 %, relatively. In 2012, this figure was already 8%. It should be taken into account that 27% of Russia’s population is rural. Contribution of agriculture to the economic growth can be evaluated on three directions: 1) participation of agrarian sector in creating GDP; 2) share of marketable output and participation in commodities turnover of the country; 3) factorial contribution of agriculture to economic growth. Contribution of agriculture towards creation of gross domestic product can be estimated on absolute volume of produced output and change of its structure.
Agriculture management can be implemented by special structural units of state management sector, what probably will enable enterprises of agro-industrial complex to increase the level of industrialization: to provide with machinery, improve the technique of chemical fertilizer use. Technical equipment, rise of agriculture of enterprises will lead to increase of self-sufficiency of country with agricultural products.
Key words: role of agro-industrial complex in economy’s structure, food self-sufficiency.

pp. 70-77


М.М. Triastsyn, Dr.Econ.Sci, Prof.
Perm State Agricultural Academy,
23 Petropavlovskaia, Perm 614990 Russia
V.I. Kuznetsov, Cand.Econ.Sci.,
Perm State Agricultural Academy,
23 Petropavlovskaia, Perm 614990 Russia

Economic relations occurring in the process of improvement of farming activities in Russia are the objects of investigations. The most acute problem in development of economic effectiveness and improvement of economic security of farming and other small forms of management in the agro-industrial complex of the Russian Federation is product outlet via existing distribution channels. Nowadays, such channels are retailment, grocery markets or so called ‘kolkhoz markets’, reprocessor enterprises, middlemen. These channels by force of their features cannot provide favorable conditions for peasant and farm households to market their own production.
Our aim was to detect factors that disturb agrarian development in the RF and to propose solutions for problems. We applied the methodologies of retrospective analysis of economic problems of farming and summarizing existing Russian and foreign experience in improvement of economic effectiveness of farmer activities. The result of work is detection of the main factor that prevents the agrarian development in the Russian Federation – ensuring access of farmer products to markets. Existing four agrarian product distribution channels do not enable solving this problem for a number of reasons. In this connection some alternative forms of delivery agrarian products to consumers are proposed: electronic commerce of agrarian products, fairs, eco-bazars, vending, direct selling to retail outlets. The application area of the results are food product wholesale and retail networks, as well as alternative channels of marketing agrarian output. In the research, we have considered the most significant factor of improvement of economic effectiveness of farms in Russia – marketing channels of farmer output. That resulted in the clarification that the task is not to cooperate with already existing marketing channels used by farmers, but in creating alternative ways, taking into account the specifics of product and potential consumer requirements to it. Such marketing channels can provide direct interaction of agrarian product producer and consumer.
Key words: economic effectiveness, sale channels, agrarian output, vending, eco-market, e-sale of farming products, direct supplies.