pp. 4-9


G. N. Polyakov,Cand.Techn. Sci.

S. N. Shukhanov,Dr. Techn. Sci.

Irkutsk state Agrarian University

1/1, Molodezhny Lane, Molodezhny settlement, Irkutsk region, Russia, 664038



For the purpose of modernization of the separator of the crushed lots of grain grains of cultures in the Irkutsk GAU the analysis and synthesis of modern types of devices, the review of scientific and technical literature and patent search, the allowed naut new technical solution on the basis of which is carried out experimental installation is created. An inspection of overall performance of the offered device was carried out when processing grain weight with a ratio of mass of grain to the mass of straw 1:2.5. Average giving of the crushed lots in the separator made 10.15 kg/s. The entity of upgrade is that between a keyboard solomotryas and air решетной cleaning in addition set a solomootdelitel that allows to select from small grain lots straw and not threshed cones at their passing on the fluctuating sieve and finally – to facilitate work air решетной cleanings. Соломотряс changes structure of the crushed lots. So, the content of free grain decreased from 25.3 to 10%, and the straw descending from keys increased 55.5 to 72.3%. Thus, keyboard соломотряс brings the bulk of the straw having long fractions out of the separator. Straw content in the lots which passed through a solomootdelitel decreased from 13.1 to 1.7%. Work of air reshetny cleaning was estimated on three indicators: Pure grains, going out of the separator, to the content of free grain in the kolosovy screw and a descent of free grain and grain in an ear from the top sieve. Thanks to the fact that lots on sieves of cleaning does not form a coherent layer and easily is blown by an air flow allowed to receive grain from clean 98.8%, the content of free grain in the kolosovy screw of 14.2%, and total descents of free grain and grain in an ear did not exceed 0.07%. Thus, the reshetno-rake solomootdelitel entered into a separator design, improves work of cleaning on all indicators. The upgraded separator of the crushed lots of grain grains of cultures allows to perform work with higher quality indicators and can be used in industrial and line technology of cleaning.

Key words: grain grains of culture, the crushed lots, the separator, modernization.

pp. 10-16


P. A. Savinykh, Dr. Techn. Sci.,Professor;

A. V. Palitsyn,Cand. Techn. Sci.,Associate Professor

State Dairy Farming Academy of Vologda,

1, Emel’yanova St., Molochnoe settlement, Vologda region, Russia, 160555

A. N. Korotkov,

Сollective Farm agricultural production cooperative «Andoga»

2, Gorodskaya St., Nikolskoe settlement, Kaduy District, Vologda region, Russia, 162520



The article discusses the options for the heat generator conversion from the standard liquid fuel to alternative ones. Solid carbonaceous wastes of industry and agriculture as well as natural and generator gases are considered as alternative fuels. The authors give the analysis of artisanal and commercial ways of modernization on the example of the heat generator belonging to the universal fuel unit family. Experiments on the heat generator operating on standard and alternative fuels have been carried out on the heating and ventilation unit-95. When operating on natural gas, the heat generator has a higher thermal efficiency, and the exhaust gases contain less toxic substances. If required, the thermal power of the heat generator can be intensified by 12-15 %, without increasing the toxicity of exhaust gases. For the heat generator operation on the generator gas, a special combustion chamber is required. This combustion chamber is to be equipped with increased flow sections for the generator gas supply and with a gas stabilizer. The generator gas from solid carbonaceous wastes of industry and agriculture has been produced in the experimental gas generator unit with parametric control of the gasification process. When working on the generator gas the characteristics of the heat generator vary, due to different chemical composition of the generator gas and its calorific efficiency. In comparison to natural gas, the generator gas, does not burn readily. Thus, it results in decreasing thermal efficiency of the heat generator, since the generator gas burns up in the exhaust system of the heat generator. The heat generator operation on the generator gas can be defined as satisfactory. This is largely due to the fact that it is necessary to choose a compromise way in setting operational characteristics between technological and ecological criteria during the heat generator operation.

Keywords: heat generator, generator gas, gas generator unit, exhaust gas composition.

pp. 17-24


V. E. Saitov, Dr. Techn. Sci., senior researcher

V. G. Farafonov, Cand. Phys.-Math. Sci.

A. V. Saitov, engineer

Vyatka State Agricultural Academy,

133, October Avenue, Kirov, Russia, 610017



Corn is the oldest product of human power, then with the development of productivity and sufficient in its production — feed for farm animals. Bunker grain heap delivered from combine harvesters to postharvest processing items is a blend of full grain, weeds and harmful impurities, which include sclerotia ergot. Using air-sieve-indented machines, pneumatic sorting tables and other devices do not give positive results when cleaning the grain material from these impurities because of the proximity of their properties with the cleaning of culture. Purification ergot sclerotia from seeds having a density less than the density of grains can be in a salt solution. For the development of machines for cleaning grain material by the specific gravity wet performed practical experiments according to the cast single grain rye varieties Falen 4 in water (ρж = 1000 kg/m-3) and sodium chloride solution (NaCl) density ρж = 1090 kg/m-3. The statistical results of the experiments are presented by distributions of the relative frequency of immersion of grain in water and in an aqueous solution of salt from the height h of the fall. It is established that 100 % of grains are loaded into water at a height h of at least 43∙10-3 m, and an aqueous solution of salt is 52∙10-3 m. When developing a device for the separation of ergot sclerotia by a wet method, it should be taken into account that the movement of grain in the device will flow and eliminate the appearance of undesirable trapping of the air bubble by the grains, which will worsen the results of separation of impurities from the grain.

Key words: grain material, ergot, grain cleaning machine, pneumatic sorting table, the Archimedes force, surface tension.

pp. 24-33



O. А. Fedorovа, Dr. Techn. Sci.

O. I. Poddubny, post-graduate student

Volgograd state agricultural University,

26, University Avenue, Volgograd, Russia, 400002



The problem of reducing the downtime of grain harvesters for technical reasons can be successfully solved by improving the strategy of maintenance (TO) on the basis of the development and use of new methods and tools, the optimization of its indicators, as well as the justification of the volume of spare parts for farms with different intensity of use of harvesting equipment. To solve this problem, it is necessary to know the actual cost of time and labor to perform the operations of grain harvesters from the intensity of their use. The time spent on operations of ETO, TO-1 and TO-2 were estimated at the maintenance of 16 combine harvesters during three harvesting seasons in the conditions of open repair sites, as well as during the harvesting of cereal and leguminous crops in the agricultural firm «Helio-pax» of the Volgograd region, located in the zone of southern chernozems. As a result of continuous timing of operations and work OF combine harvesters «Niva-Effect», RSM-142 » Akros-530 «and RSM-10B» don-1500B «in the farms of the Volgograd region with different intensity of use, it is established that the minimum labor costs for the operation of every-shift maintenance (ETO) combine harvesters «Niva-Effect» observed in the owners with an average seasonal operating time of one combine — 450 520 ha, combines of RSM-10B «don-1500B» — 580-620 hectares and combines of RSM-142 «Akros-530» — 600-750 hectares; at THAT-1 the maximum costs of labor fall on the combine RSM-10B «don-1500B», the minimum labor-bones is shifted towards the minimum intensity of use for combines «Niva-Effect», and towards the maximum intensity of use for combines RSM-142 «Akros-530»; mini-Mal operational labor intensity of ETO, TO-1 and TO-2 corresponds to those farms in which the average annual operating time of combine harvesters RSM-10B «don-1500B» is within 500-700 hectares. The most time-consuming operations in IT are purifying wash (46.1 per cent), gas (21,3 %) and lubricants (19,4 %), while THE-1 – mounting (22,9 %), adjustment and diagnostic (21,4 %), eyes Stateline-washing (21.3 per cent) and products (20.9 percent), with-2 – adjustable-rowoco diagnostic (28,3 %), fastening (24.7 per cent), lubricants (20,3 %) and cleansing wash (16.2 percent). The complexity OF the grain harvesters is largely determined by the provision of farms with mobile maintenance units.

Key words: combine harvester, the complexity of technical service, technological operations, the intensity of the use of harvesting equipment.


pp. 34-41


N. N. Zezin, Dr. Agr. Sci.;

M. A. Namyatov, Cand. Agr. Sci.;

P. A. Postnikov, Cand. Agr. Sci.,

Ural ARI – Branch of FSBSI UrFASRC, UrB RAS

112a, Belinskogo Str, Yekaterinburg, Russia, 620142


U. N. Zubarev, Dr. Agr. Sci., professor,

Perm State Agro-Technological University

23, Petropavlovskaia St., Perm, Russia, 614990



In 2002-2018 in the Ural, research Institute of agriculture held stationary field experiment to study the effectiveness of biological factors in crop rotation. The cultures improving (legume grasses, grain legume) and reducing (corn, potatoes, silo) soil fertility are revealed. Need of expansion of works on an agriculture biologization is proved. Based on generalization of results of long-term researches and experience of the advanced farms of the region, the main parameters of accumulation of nutritious elements with each factor of a biologization (organic fertilizers, long-term legume grasses, grain legume, and green manure, a straw plowing) are determined. It was found that in the Sverdlovsk region at the expense of biological factors in 2009-2012 about 35.6 kg/hectare of NPK received to the soil, increased to 36.1-42.4 kg/ha. Mineral fertilizers these years were applied at the level of 22-25 kg of active ingredient of NPK on 1 hectare. The calculations showed that introduction of based on crop rotations allows to increase the biologization sizes widely. In a grain, a fallow, a grass crop rotation with use of dung at the rate of 10 t/hectare of the crop rotation area the maximum accumulation of NPK is noted is about 126 kg/hectare. In crop rotations, using green manure, straw and nitrogen fixation by legumes accumulation of basic elements of a delivery at the level of 65.7-76.8 kg/hectare is possible. Expansion of a share of legume grasses in a grass area to 30-35 % and increase in their productivity of herbage due to perfecting of technology of cultivation it is important for increase in fertility of soils in the region.

Keywords: soil, agriculture biologization, crop rotation, organic fertilizers, green manure, long-term legume grasses.

pp. 41-48


D. A. Zykin, Senior Lecturer;

Perm State Agro-Technological University

23, st. Petropavlovskaya, Perm, Russia, 614990



The results of the study of the effect of treatment with epibrassinolide on the number of formed fruit elements of buckwheat varieties Dikul under the Urals conditions are presented. The experiment was carried out in 2004–06 on the basis of the Verkhnemellinsky GSU on sod-fine-podzolic heavy loamy soil and in 2013–14 on the basis of the training and experimental farm of Perm GATU on sod-podzolic soil. During the experiment, standard techniques were used. The treatments were carried out in the phase of mass flowering of the main shoot (first term) and in the phase of side shoots of the first order (second term). For control taken untreated plants. Morphological analysis of the plants was carried out ten days after treatment. Counting fruit elements was carried out manually. Weather conditions during the experiments were contrasting. 2004, 2005 and 2013 were the most favorable years (warm with enough moisture). Unfavorable years: 2006 (different arid conditions) and 2014 (cold with high humidity). In more favorable weather conditions, an increase in the number of flowers was observed during the first processing period to 84-171 pcs. per plant, with control values 47-140 pcs. respectively. There was also an increase in the number of mature seeds on the analyzed plants when processed in the second term. The number of mature seeds ranged from 16 to 73 pieces. per plant with control from 11 to 26 pcs. respectively. In unfavorable weather conditions of 2005 and 2014, the treatments did not give significant results, or caused a decrease in the number of fruit elements, in particular, when processing in the second term, the number of flowers per plant decreased to 46.3 pcs. when the control 50,5 pcs. on the plant. Treatment with epibrassinolide in the first term can be recommended for areas with a stable climate. The second treatment period is more applicable in an unstable climate with a favorable forecast.

Keywords: buckwheat, treatment, epibrassinolide, flowers, fruits.

pp. 48-54


N. N. Kuzmenko, Cand. Agr. Sci., senior researcher


T. P. Sukhopalova, Cand. Agr. Sci., senior researcher

V. I. Iliina,

Federal State Budget Research Institution – Federal Research

for Bast Fiber Crops, CBFC

35, Lunacharskogo st., Torzhok, Tverskaya region, Russia, 172002



In the process of measures direction at be promoted the efficiency cultivation of flax large role belong to agricultural technologies of cultivation in application to concretely variety. In the production process, among the agrotechnical action, large meaning spare creation of optimal density of flax stems, which influence on regulation of the cropping power of fibred and seeds flax products in combination with the optimal application of mineral fertilization. To see someone in the Central region of the Nonchemozem zone of the Russian Federation (Tver region) on middle sour fertile soddy-podzolic losili — loam soils in two-fator Field experiments performed in 2015-2017 year study of fibre flax middle ripe varieties Sursky. Studied the influence of two seeding rate (20 and 24 million germinated seeds a one hectare) in combination with three doses of mineral fertilizers (N0P0K0, N15P30K60, N30P60K90). Cultivation fibreflax with seeding rate 24 million germinated seeds a one hectare to exert an influence on increase quantity plant on 1 meter on 408 piece in comparison with seeding rate 20 million germinated seeds a one hectare. The most high contents  all and scotched fiber – 38,0 and 35,5 %, according, also  the highest crop capacity of fiber productivity of the variety Sursky in goods crops was receive by combining 24 million germinated seeds a one hectare with of the dose of mineral fertilizers N15P30K60. The cropping power of all fiber put together 2,33, dressed flax 2,16, flax seeds 1,01 ton-ha, the quality of shale flax stock correspond to the 2,8 number seed productivity 1,18 ton-ha receipt by combination 20 million germinating seeds per a one hectare with a dose of mineral fertilizer N15P30K60. By combination agrotechnical methods the cropping power of all fiber to be lowered and was 2,22, dressed flax 1,94 ton-ha at lowering the quality of shale flax stock.

Keywords: fibreflax, varieties, seeding rate, dose fertilizer, cropping power, quality.

pp. 55-62


A. M. Lentochkin, Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor

Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy

16, Kirova St., Izhevsk, Russia, 426033



The population of the planet is growing steadily, and land resources are decreasing. This situation causes an increase in demand for products grown on the land. The countries of the world have different volumes of crop production, including grain, the most demanded in the world market. There are countries where the provision of grain is more than 1000 kg, and in others — less than 100 kg. In recent years, the Russian Federation has increased the volume of grain production, reaching more than 135 million tons in 2017. The majority of this volume is wheat. Produced grain volumes make it possible to satisfy all domestic needs, have a significant reserve and export tens of millions of tons. Russia, which possesses significant areas of agricultural land and arable land, including chernozem soils, has far from fully realized the possibility of increasing the planted area in each of the country’s regions. Therefore, to increase the volume of grain production, which is highly demanded in the world market, there are considerable reserves for rational distribution in the country and for increasing the area under grain crops. There are reserves for improving the use of soil and climatic factors in most regions of the country and the genetic potential of modern varieties, based on the use of scientifically based technologies for growing agricultural crops. The possibility of implementing these reserves requires the solution of the necessary organizational, legal and economic issues of grain production.

Key words: grain crops, wheat, cereal crop area, gross grain harvest.

pp. 62-68


A. A. Selyakov, graduate student;

A. S. Bogatyreva, Сand. Agr. Sci., Assistant Professor;

E. D. Akmanaev, Сand. Agr. Sci., Professor,

Perm State Agro-Technological University

23, Petropavlovskaya street, Perm, Russia, 614990



The paper presents the results of studies to clarify the methods of sowing varieties of spring rape in The middle Urals. The reaction to changes in the method and depth of sowing of spring rape was revealed. Three-factor field experiment was laid on sod-mezopodzol loam soil training and research experimental fields of the Perm GATA. The study was carried out in 2016-2018, the Data are presented as averaged values over the two years of research on the varieties Warrior and Smile, and for three years Smile. It was found that in the conditions of the Urals the greatest yield is formed by agrophytocenoses sown with the use of an anchor Coulter, to a depth of 3 cm (1.96 and 2.16 t/ha for Ratnik and Smilla hybrid, respectively). The planned level of yield (not less than 2 t / ha) in an average of two years was obtained by sowing the Mill to a depth of 2 and 3 cm anchor Coulter. Due to the low yield of spring rape in 2016, it was not possible to achieve the goal in an average of three years of research. The three-year data confirm the patterns identified in the analysis of the two-year results. The average for 2017-2018. the yield of the studied varieties of spring rape did not differ. The productivity of agrocenoses is confirmed by the indicators of the yield structure. The higher yield when sowing with an anchor Coulter is due to the large number of plants per 1 m2, preserved at the time of harvesting. The maximum number of pods on the plant and the largest mass of 1000 seeds are formed when sowing with a single-disc Coulter due to more sparse standing of plants.

Key words: rapeseed, yield, depth of sowing, type of Coulter, yield structure, oil seeds.

pp. 69-75


A. N. Sergeeva, graduate student;

A. A. Scriabin, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor;

S. L. Eliseev, Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor,

Perm State Agro-Technological University,

23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm, Russia, 614990



The paper presents the results of research, the purpose of which is to develop techniques for the varietal technology of cultivation of early ripe potatoes in the Middle Urals. To achieve the goal in 2016-2018 on educational scientific experimental field of Perm SATU, a three-factor field experiment was established to study the effect of nitrogen fertilizer dose and planting rate on the yield of early ripe potato varieties. The soil of the experimental plot is sod-podzolic medium loamy. Agrotechnics in experience — generally accepted for the Perm region. Studied: Luck, Red Scarlet, Rosalind; nitrogen dose N90, N120, N150 against the background К90Р120; planting rate of 40, 50, 60, 70 thousand/ha, ridge method. Vegetation periods 2016-2018 differed in temperature and moisture. The vegetation period of 2016 was characterized by very warm weather with minimal precipitation, which negatively affected the mass of tubers from the bush. The vegetation period of 2017 according to the nature of the weather turned out to be the complete opposite of the vegetation period of 2016. It was characterized by a predominance of cool weather and a significant excess of precipitation, as a result of which potato plants formed a large number of tubers with a low mass of one tuber. The growing season in 2018 was the most favorable for growing potatoes. The most fruitful of the early varieties of potatoes is Luck, with an average yield of 30.5 t/ha. The varieties of foreign breeding Red Scarlett and Rosalind are inferior in yield to domestic varieties of good luck by 12.2 and 10.6 t/ha (HCP05 = 4.9 t/ha). The optimum planting density of early varieties in the Middle Urals is 60 thousand/ha.

Key words: potato, variety, nitrogen dose, planting rate, yield, yield structure.

pp. 75-80


A. N. Sazonova, graduate student,


A. C. Ivanenko, Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor,


State agrarian University of Northern Zauralye

7, Republic st., Tyumen, Russia, 625003


The estimation of yield and adaptive properties of soybean varieties on the results of their testing in the Northern forest-steppe of the Tyumen region. All varieties, according to the author’s descriptions, belong to the precocious, belong to two ecological types: Northern – varieties from European Russia: killer Whale, Chera 1, Light, and Siberian: Omsk 4, Sibniiskhoz 6, Eldorado, Dina, Golden, Sibniik 315, Krasnoobskaya. Studied varieties, focusing on the methodology of state variety testing and guidance to field experiments B. A. Dospekhov. The seeding rate of 800 thousand germinating seeds on 1 hectare, the method of sowing is a continuous ordinary. Soil-leached Chernozem, low-power, on heavy loam. The highly fertile land, before sowing was made by the method of cutting into the soil is 70 kg/ha of nitrophoska (NPK)16. In terms of stress resistance, soybean varieties were divided into two groups: stress-resistant and unstable. The first were less precocious, less yielding, with a small scale of yield fluctuations, coefficient of variation and a high stability index. In the second group there were varieties more precocious, more productive, with a large scale of yield fluctuations, coefficient of variation, low stability index. Other calculated indicators confirmed the significance of the separation of varieties by stress resistance. The first group of varieties has reduced genetic flexibility, increased stability. The second group has reduced stability, higher plasticity. This made it possible for these varieties to use the favorable conditions of 2018 and give a high yield of seeds. Highly stable admittedly soybean varieties Killer whale and Krasnoobskaya.

Key words: Soybean, yield, stress resistance, coefficient of variation, indices of stability and plasticity.

pp. 80-86


N. G. Tuktarova, Сand. Agr. Sci.

FSBIS Udmurt Federal Research Center of Ural Department of the Russian

Academy of Sciences (structural subdivision – Udmurt Research of Agriculture)

1, Lenina str., s. Pervomajskij, Zavyalovsky District, Udmurt Republic, Russia, 427007



Agricultural production is largely dependent on weather and climatic conditions, and therefore, in the cultivation of grain crops, it is necessary to take into account their features, and to avoid as much as possible the negative impact of these factors. The article describes the main factors affecting the overwintering and yield of winter crops in the conditions of the Udmurt Republic. Analysis of climatic conditions showed that over the past 50 years as a whole, the average annual air temperature in the republic increased by 0.7°C in the northern agroclimatic region, in the central – by 1.5°C, in the south – by 0.4°C, precipitation increased in the northern and southern zones by 116 mm (26 %), in the middle zone — by 58 mm (11%). These changes have a significant impact on the state of winter cereal crops, both during the growing season and during the rest period at the winter. With the increase in precipitation and the warming of the climate in the autumn and winter periods, the crops of winter crops became more affected by snow mold and sclerotinia. To mitigate the danger of natural and climatic vulnerability of crops during the period of wintering is possible due to the observance of optimal sowing dates. The date for sowing winter crops in the Udmurt Republic should be postponed to a later period (by 7-10 days) compared with the recommendations given in 1970-1980. A mandatory element of the technology for the cultivation of winter crops should be the protection of crops from damping-out diseases.

Keywords: winter cereal crops, climate change, air temperature, precipitation, sowing date, yield.


pp. 87-93


K. V. Gilev,

FPS of Russia in Perm Krai,

25, Ostrovsky, St., Perm, Russia, 614000


V. A. Sitnikov, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor

Perm State Agro-Technological University

23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm, 614990, Russia



For the first time in the Perm region a comparative study of the use of high-energy ready-made dry food from the class «Royal Canin» in the feeding of service dogs against the background of natural products prepared in the conditions of fodder. The aim of the experiment is to identify the food that best meets the needs of dogs while saving budget funds for feeding. The high efficiency of the use of dogs nutrients feed «Royal Canin Club Energy H.E.» with a high content of protein, as evidenced by increased average daily gain in live weight 24 g, and in comparison with the animals cat food «Royal Canin Energy 4300» savings of cash is based on carmodel 18 rub consumed dogs diet cat food «Royal Canin Energy 4300» exceeding the exchange of energy from the fat in food prepared by 12.74 % and food «Royal Canin Club Energy H.E.» – by 4.78% was used much worse. A three-fold increase in the content of vitamins a and D in comparison with the norm has led to a significant rise in price in comparison with the food prepared and «Royal Canin Club Energy H.E.», and the results of this experience is not recommended for feeding service dogs in conditions of captivity. The prepared food because of insufficient energy nutrition was also absorbed by animals worse, but due to the low cost of the diet, its further use in feeding dogs requires periodic nutritional analysis to adjust the composition of the ingredients.

Key words:dogs, dry food, nutrition, digestibility, daily gain, blood, efficiency.

pp. 94-99


N. S. Zolotova, Post-Graduate Student

N. A. Leshcheva, Cand. Veterinar. Sci., Assistant Professor

V. I. Pleshakova, Dr. Veterinar. Sci., Professor

V. S. Vlasenko, Dr. Biol. Sci., Professor

Omsk State Agrarian University

1, Institutskaya square, Russia, Omsk, 644008



The article presents the results of the influence of the probiotic preparation on the hematological, biochemical and immunobiological indicators of ducks. An experiment was conducted, for which two groups of 15 animals each were formed. To the ducks of the first group (experiment), the probiotic Olin was introduced into the ration during the entire growing period, according to the instructions 0.4 kg / ton — in the first 15 days and 1 kg / ton — until the end of the harvesting. The second group of birds was on the main diet (control). In hematological studies, an increase in the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes and hemoglobin in the experimental group was noted. When conducting biochemical studies, an increase in the content of total protein and creatinine was observed, as well as a decrease in the level of glucose, urea, cholesterol, and gamma-glutamyltransferase. When analyzing the indicators characterizing the state of the immune system, it was established that the ducks of the experimental group compared to the control group recorded a higher content of T-lymphocytes and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes against the background of an unreliable decrease in the number of B-lymphocytes. Indicators of the functional activity of neutrophils and the CIC showed the positive effect on the immune system of the ducks, in whose diet the probiotic was introduced. In particular, a decrease in the level of spontaneous NBT test and, as a result, an increase in the functional reserve of neutrophils was noted. Also registered a significant decrease in the concentration of the CEC in birds of group I compared with the control group.

Key words: hematological and immunological parameters, ducks, probiotic

pp. 99-105


D. A. Lokteva, veterinarian,

Perm State Veterinary Station,

37A, St. Excavator, Perm, Russia, 614065;

T. N. Sivkova, doctor of biological sciences, associate professor,

Perm State Agrarian-Technical University,

23, Petropavlovskaya,Perm, 614099, Russia



Shellfish are a very popular food product, the import and export of which is estimated in thousands and millions of tons in the world. However, we need to remember about the possibility of contamination by agents of infectious diseases dangerous to humans and farm animals. Contamination is prevented by veterinary and sanitary examination (VSE) of seafood. The aim of our work is study of shellfish safety in the commercial network of the city of Perm according to parasitological criteria. Material were 232 samples pf different species of mollusks including 207 — oysters, mussels, vongole and 25 (octopuses). Incomplete helminthological autopsy was performed on FLOUR 3.2.988-00, in addition, compressor microscopy and histological examination were performed. During the visual inspection in the samples was not found any pathological changes. No visible helminths and their larvae were detected, which corresponds to the safety requirements for this product. Once in a sample of mussels (M. edulis) from the batch of production of «Novo-Mar», St. Petersburg was found a crab-peas female – Pinnotheres pisum Linnaeus, 1767. One hundred sixty-eight samples, including 158 samples of bivalves (10 oysters, 28 – vongole and 120 mussels) and 10 octopuses were analyzed by compressor microscopy. As a result of inspection any inclusions, microorganisms and causative agents of infective diseases in any case it wasn’t recorded. Then a histological examination of 20 organs and tissues of molluscs (leg, mantle, gills, intestines, gonads, etc.) was performed. The preservation of the main pattern of the structure and defects and signs of tissue destruction due to the crystallization of ice were noted. The obtained results allow us to conclude that the extractive enterprises and aquaculture are taking the necessary measures to break the cycles of development of pathogens, carried out a fairly thorough pre-treatment of invertebrates and VSE in the field of production, which significantly reduces the risk of entering the market of Perm dangerous goods.

Key words: mollusks, parasites, veterinary-sanitary expertize.

pp. 105-112


A. A. Ovchinnikov, Dr. Agr. Sc., Professor

Yu. V. Matrosova, Dr. Agr. Sc., Associate professor

D. A. Konovalov, graduate student

South Ural State Agrarian University

13, ul. Gagarin, Troitsk, Chelyabinsk region, Russia, 457100



Throughout the entire production cycle, the organism of laying hens is exposed to bacterial microflora, which affects the safety of the population, productivity and quality of the hatching egg. With this ethos, probiotics of different composition can affect the quantitative and qualitative indicators of the productivity of laying hens. The inclusion of probiotic Lewisel SB Plus and Cellobacterin –T in the dose of laying hens at a dose of 0.50 kg / ton of feed by periods of the productive cycle (142-187 days; 241-270 and 316-337 days) increased the bird’s egg productivity by 11 , 2 12.9%, respectively, the safety of livestock in the group — by 1.3 and 2.1%. At the same time, the weight of the eggs in all groups throughout the entire production cycle was close in value – at the peak of productivity, the average was 58.64-58.82 g, at the completion of egg-laying — 66.50-66.99 g. The yield of eggs based on the average layer in the group with probiotic Levisel SB Plus was higher by 11.9%, with Cellobacterin-T – by 13.3%, and the incubation results exceeded the control group in the number of fertilized eggs by 1.99 and 3, 83% of bred chickens – by 3.1-4.7%, hatchability — by 0.90 and 1.4%, hatching of young stock – by 2.7 and 4.2%. At the same time, the waste of incubation of eggs from the hens of the experimental groups in comparison with the control group decreased by 2.7-4.2%. As a result, the cost of feed for the production of a dozen eggs in the group with probiotic Levisel SB Plus decreased by 9.7%, with the addition of Cellobacterin-T – by 10.4%, and by 1 kg of egg mass they decreased by 10.0-10.7 %.

Keywords: laying hens, probiotic feed additive, egg productivity, egg weight, egg incubation qualities, feed costs.

pp. 112-116


E. K. Pankova,


V. I. Polkovnikova, сand. agricultural sciences, docent,


Perm State Agro-Technological University

111, st. of Heroes of Hassan, Perm, 614025


The problem of increasing the efficiency of pork production is of great socio-economic importance for solving the problem of long-term and sustainable development of animal husbandry, as pig products occupy a significant share in the structure of commercial products of the industry. Therefore, one of the priority areas of economic research at the present stage of development of agro-industrial complex is the search for reserves to increase the effectiveness of pig breeding. Various methods of crossing are used on Plex pigs in order to increase the production of animals at no additional cost and to achieve an increase in the volume of production, as this is one of the conditions for the effective development of pig breeding. The research was carried out in the conditions of the pig complex «Golden calf» of Tchaikovsky district of Perm Krai. High average daily and absolute gains for the period of fattening were obtained from three – breed young animals (Kbhy)CHL-692 g and 83 kg, the difference with purebred animals of large white breed was 42 g and 5 kg, respectively. The gross increase in crossbred three-breed animals was higher compared to purebred animals by 100 kg, respectively, and the revenue was more by 35,000 rubles. As a result, most of the profit was received from animals (Kbhy)CHL, the difference with purebred animals of the control group was 24 000 rubles. The data obtained testify to the expediency of the use of three-breed crossing of pigs in commercial pig breeding.

Keywords: fattening, breed, average daily growth, gross growth, absolute growth, economic efficiency, profitability.

pp. 116-123


S. L. Rastorguyeva,

D. F. Ibishov, Dr. Vet. Sci., Professor

A. P. Osipov, Cand. Med. Sci., Associate Professor

Perm State Agro-Technological University

23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm, Russia, 614990



The study of the influence of dry period on the cellular composition of the blood and the content in it of serum proteins is executed in the experimental-research economy «fake mountain» of the Permian region of Permian edge on the clinically healthy cows of the black-mottled species 5-6 of summer age. During the first day of dry period the coefficients of variation in the results of studies in the different samples comprised from 8±1 to 43±6%. Consequently, the indices in the samples obtained from the cows at the beginning of dry period can not obey the law of normal distribution. Therefore authenticity and the direction of possible changes were evaluated according to W Wilcoxon’s test. Erythrocyte concentrations in the blood of cows in the middle and in the end dry period did not change, but in them the average content of hemoglobin decreased. In the blood became more than segmentonuclear neutrophils, 0- lymphocytes and monocytes, and also serum albumin and globulins. The content of IgG in the blood was lowered, and the concentration of IgM corresponds to standard, but reliably it increases and it can partially compensate reduction in the concentration IgG, without having in this case an unfavorable effect on the fruit. The concentration of IgA in the blood serum within all periods of dry period exceeds standard. This testifies about an increase in the activity of the mechanisms of the specific protection of cow and developing fruit from the infection by the located in the environment agents of infections and about the creation of conditions for the accumulation IgA in the mammary glands. The spread of the measured indices on 60 day was reduced approximately two, and the average value of coefficients of variation reached the boundary between the weak and average scattering. Consequently, in the end of the dry period scattering indices in the samples began to correspond to the law of normal distribution and the preparation of the organism of pregnant cows for the being approached kinds and the new lactation was completed.

Key words: cows, dry period, serum proteins, blood cells.

pp. 123-130


T. A. Russkih, post-graduate student

E- mail:

V. A. Bychkova, Сand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor

E- mail:

V. M. Yudin, Сand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor

E- mail:

Izhevsk state agricultural Academy

11, st. Studencheskaya, Izhevsk, Russia, 426069


Over the past 25 years, cows of black-and – white and Kholmogorsky breed in the Udmurt Republic have had a significant increase in milk yield for 305 days of the first lactation (by 2093.3 and 3042.0 kg), as well as an increase in fat content-by 0.17 and 0.38%, respectively. Milk yield of cows-heifers Kholmogorskaya breed 84 kg less and fat content of 0.38 % lower than that of cows of black-and-white breed. The period of economic use of cows of black pied and Kholmogory breed was increased up to 2007 by 1.3 and 0.5 of lactation, respectively. Then, against the background of productivity growth, there is a decrease in the duration of use to 3.6 and 3.42 lactations (by 0.6 and 0.71 lactation, respectively). The amount of milk obtained from black-and-white cows for all lactation, in terms of basic norms increased from 1993 to 2012 by 13085 kg. Then, due to the reduction in the period of use of cows, this figure is reduced by 1092.8 kg. in cows Kholmogorskaya breed lifetime milk yield in terms of basic norms systematically increased during the analyzed period from 9312 kg to 22367 kg. But this figure is 11 % less than that of cows of black-and-white breed due to lower fat content. The main directions of work with cows of black-and-white and holmogorsky breed are increase of fat content in milk of cows of holmogorsky breed, protein in milk of cows of two breeds and increase in duration of economic use of animals.

Key words: black and motley breed, kholmogorskaya breed, milk productivity, life productivity, productive longevity.

pp. 130-136


L. V. Sycheva, Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor;

O. Iu. Iunusova, Cand. Bio. Sci., Associate Professor

Perm State Agro-Technological University

23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm, Russia, 614990



In the conditions of one of the largest poultry farms in the Perm Krai a study on the impact of the feed additive lysine sulphate on slaughter quality, morphological composition of carcasses, the chemical composition of the pectoral muscle and femoral broiler chicken was conducted. The poultry of the experimental group I fed basic diet with lysine sulphate at a dose of 1% of feed weight, the experimental group II –1.5% of mixed feed weight, and broiler chicken in the control group received the main diet consisting of complete feed produced in the feed mill plant of the poultry farm. When growing chickens four-stages feeding system was used: 1-12 day old chickens were fed with complete feed CF-5-0, 13-14 day old – with CF-5-1, 25-34 day old – with CF-6-1, and from 35th day till slaughter – with CF-6-2. During the research, broilers of control and test groups were held in similar conditions. According to the results of the control slaughter, pre-slaughter body weight in experimental group I was higher compared to the control group by 4.28% and to experimental group II – by 1.63%. The mass of semieviscerated and eviscerated carcasses was also higher in experimental group I compared to the control one by 5.32% and 5.99%, and with experimental group II – by 2.65% and 2.18%, respectively. The content of dry matter and protein in breast and hip muscles in broiler chicken carcasses in experimental group I amounted to 27.11%, 22.46%  and 26.84%, 21.36% ; in experimental group II – 26.85%, 21.72% and 26.42%, 20.95%, respectively, that is higher than in the control group by 1.77 %, 1.23% and 1.29%, 0.65%, 1.51%, 0.49% and 0.87%, 0.24% respectively. To increase meat productivity and quality improvement of the pectoral and femoral muscle in broiler it is appropriate to recommend the introduction into the basic diet lysine sulphate at a dose of 1% of feed weight.

Keywords: lysine sulphate, broiler chickens, slaughter quality, fat, protein.

pp. 137-144


E. V. Hardina, Cand. Agr. Sci.,


O. A. Krasnova, Dr. Agr. Sci., associate Professor,


S. A. Hramov, postgraduate,


Izhevsk state agricultural Academy,

11, st. Studencheskaya, Izhevsk, 426069


Scientific and economic experience in the study of the effectiveness of the use of dihydroquercetin (DKV) in dairy cattle breeding was carried out in the conditions of the Votkinsk region of the Udmurt Republic. Three groups of first-calf cows of black-and-white breed (10 heads each) were formed. Animals of the 1st and 2nd experimental groups in addition to the main diet received a natural supplement containing feed salt and DKV at the rate of 25 mg and 75 mg per 100 kg of live weight. The additive was fed during the period of milking, in the first half of the day. It was found that the mass fraction of fat in the milk of cows of the experimental groups exceeded the control by 0.36% (p≥0.99) and 0.43% (P≥0.999), respectively. In the 2nd experimental group there is an increase in the mass fraction of the protein, relative to the control and the 1st experimental group, by 0.16% (p≥0.95) and 0.01%, respectively. The SOMO content in the milk of cows of the 2nd experimental group was 8.63%, which was 0.29% and 0.06% higher than in the control and 1st experimental group, respectively. The lowest level of density of the milk were identified in the 2nd experimental group, and made 1028.4 kg/m3, with the highest, relative to other groups, the fat content (3.71 %). From the milk of experimental groups of cows was produced fermented milk product yogurt. Yogurt made from milk of the control and the 1st experimental group did not correspond to the organoleptic characteristics of GOST, as the clot was not well formed. In the product produced from the milk of cows of the 2nd experimental group, the fermentation time was 215 minutes, which is 8.5% and 2.3% less than in yogurt produced from the milk of cows of the control group and the 1st experimental group, res In the product produced from the milk of cows of the 2nd experimental group, the fermentation time was 215 minutes, which is 8.5% and 2.3% less than in yogurt produced from the milk of cows of the control group and the 1st experimental group, respectively. The results of research, found that the use of natural additives, with a content of 75 mg of dihydroquercetin, greatly improved the quality characteristics of raw milk and its technological properties.

Keywords: first-calf cows, dihydroquercetin, feed salt, lactation, milk productivity, technological properties.

pp. 144-149


F. M. Khusainov, Dr. Veterinar. Sci., associate Professor;

V. V. Evstifeev, Dr. Biol. Sci., associate Professor;

S. I. Yakovlev, post-graduate student,

Federal centre for Toxicological, radiation and biological safety,

Scientific town-2, Kazan, Russia, 420075.



Presents clinical-epidemiological results in disease of goats, caused by the pathogen chlamydia species Сhlamydophila аbortus. Presented in the dynamics of the clinic and the course of the disease of goats, which manifested itself in the form of abortion, stillbirths and the birth of young hypotrophy. In 1-9 % of pregnant goats sporadic abortions, stillbirths and birth of hypotrophic goats were registered. The aborted fruits and stillborn goats were 4-5 months old and showed signs of underdevelopment: low body weight, lack of hair on the head and limbs. In newborn goats observed the appearance of clinical signs of the disease in the first days after birth. By the 5-6 day after birth, 5-17 % of newborn goats developed the disease. The disease manifested itself in the form of bronchitis, conjunctivitis pneumonia, arthritis of the wrist and hock joints. In serological examination of serum samples for chlamydia in RSC with chlamydial antigen, 23% of the investigated goats reacted positively. A high percentage of chlamydia disease was found in sheep-40% and newborn young – 20 %. Microscopic analysis of smears of pathological material from the aborted fetuses and newborn calves showed that chlamydia was detected in 75 % of cases. The results of microscopic studies have been proven by isolating chlamydia from the pathological material abortion of fetuses, newborn youngsters, in a biological sample on chicken embryos. In the biomaterial of the abortion of fetuses and sick kids in 3 cases out of 4 found chlamydia, which was isolated in chick embryos in 50 % of cases.

Key words: chlamydia, goats, abortion, antibodies.