pp. 4-9


V. I. Balakshina, Cand. Bio. Sci.,
Nizhne-Volzhskiy Agriculture Research Institute
12, Tsentralnaya St., pos. Oblastnoy selskokhosyastvennoy opytnoy stancii,
Gorodishchenskyi rayon, Volgogradskaya oblast, 403013 Russia
For 10 years, peculiarities of spring wheat productivity formation were studied on the dry steppe zone of chestnut soils, depending on meteorological conditions, sowing dates, mineral fertilizers dose, variety properties. The soil of the experimental field was chestnut strongly solonetzic carbonate and weakly solonetzic noncarbonated heavy-loamy with solonetz mottles. Yield capacity of spring wheat depended on rainfall distribution during vegetation period. The highest yield was obtained at sufficient moisture supply (hydrothermic coefficient– HTC – 0.72-0.90) – 2.8-3.1 t/hа, when the largest part of rainfall dropped during ear formation – full ripeness phase; in drought years (HTC 0.12-0.14) – 0.8-1.1 t/ha – vice versa, during tillering – stem elongation phases. Cultivars Belyanka (2.4-2.5 t/ha) and Ludmila (1.9-2.2 t/ha) were the most resistant to changes of weather conditions. Yield capacity of cultivars L-505, Albidum 188, Prokhorovka ranged from 1.5-1.8 t/ha – in drought years, to 3.2-3.3 t/ha – in wet years. While fertilizer introducing, yield capacity gain in comparison with control comprised at favorable weather conditions (HTC 0.91-1.1) at a dose of N30Р40К20 – 0.6-0.7 t/ha, N60Р40К20 – 0.9 t/ha; in drier years (HTC 0.5-0.64) – 0.2-0.3 t/ha and 0.3-0.4 t/ha, at strong drought (HTC 0.12-0.14) there were no differences. The highest yield capacity gain was obtained in cultivars Albidum 188, L-505, L-503, the least – in cultivars Kamyshinskaya 3 and Belyanka. The mixture of cultivars Kamyshinskaya 3 + Ludmila + Albidum 188 gained yield capacity by 12-14% in comparison with pure cultivars.
Key words: spring wheat, varieties, yield capacity, hydrothermic coefficient, sowing dates, mineral fertilizers.

pp. 10-16


A. F. Bukharov, Dr. Agr. Sci.,
D. N. Baleev, Cand. Agr. Sci.
All-Russia Research Institute of Vegetable Breeding,
500, Vereya, Ramenskii rayon, Moskovskaia oblast 140153 Russia
A. R. Bukharova, Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor,
Russian State Agrarian Correspondence University,
50, Sh. Entusiastov, Balashikha, Moscovskaia oblast 143907 Russia

The calculated temperature coefficient (Q10) for germination speed shows changing the rate of seed germination when the temperature increases by 10°C compared to the original temperature.
The experiment was conducted three times, each time 1000 seeds were used. After specified incubation period seeds were extracted and washed in current water, then they were laid down for post-incubation germination. The temperature coefficient and the embryo growth rate were calculated on the Van’t-Hoff equation. With increasing temperature germination from 3 to 20°C, the rate of seed germination of all studied crops is increasing while the temperature coefficient varies from 1.23 to 1.82 depending on the culture. The maximum increase of the temperature coefficient of germination velocity was observed in coriander seeds – 1.82; dill – 1.61 and carrots – 1.54. Parsnip seeds (1.23), lovage (1.24) and celery (1.32) react weaker to increasing temperature. Temperature coefficient (Q10) calculated for the rate of the embryo growth shows changing the growth rate of embryo when the temperature increases by 10°C compared to the original temperature. With the germination temperature increase from 3 to 20°C, the rate of embryo growth in studied crops increases. Temperature coefficient in this case ranges from 1.00 to 1.57. The maximum increase in the rate of embryo growth was observed in carrot – 1.57; parsley root – 1.51 and celery root – 1.35. The seeds of lovage (1.14), parsnips (1.11) and coriander (1.00) react weaker to increasing temperature. When approaching temperature 30°C, the embryo growth rate reduces rapidly. The temperature coefficient of the embryo growth rate varies from 0.04 (dill) to 0.5 (coriander). In crops with increasing time of stress action, temperature coefficient reduces rapidly, crops celery and parsnips belong to such.
Key words: seeds, embryo, seed germination, umbelliferae, the temperature, the temperature coefficient (Q10)

pp. 16-22


A. A. Vasiliev, Dr. Agr. Sci., I. L. Frumin, Dr. Agr. Sci.,
South Ural Research Institute of Horticulture and Potato,
Gidrostroi St., p. Shershni, Cheliabinsk 454902 Russia

In the forest-steppe of the South Urals in 2013-2014 we studied three methods of applying Mival-Agro silicone biostimulator: treatment of seed tubers at planting (2 g/t), growing plants during budding (20 g/ha) and the combined method (tubers and plants treatment) for the planned yield of potato varieties Tarasov 25 and 40 t/ha. Soil of the pilot area was medium loamy leached chernozem. Tubers weighing 50-70 were used for planting. Planting was carried out according to the scheme 75×27 cm (for food purposes) and 75×19 cm (for seeds). Planting depth — 6-8 cm. Norms of fertilizers on the planned yield 25 t/ha in two years averaged N63P55K52, to harvest 40 t/ha — N170P180K240. Cluster analysis of the experimental data on 21 criteria allowed identifying five groups of options that clearly differ from each other in terms of production efficiency. The greatest interest in the cultivation of ware potatoes are options, combined in cluster III (with average production intensity). Here are the options from the different methods of application of Mival-Agro on the background of fertilizer application, based on the planned yield 25 or 40 t/ha at planting scheme 75×27 cm. For the production of seed potatoes is the most suitable cluster V (with high production efficiency), bringing together the options with thickened planting scheme and the use of Mival-Agro (for the treatment of tubers or plants) on the background of fertilizers to harvest 40 t/ha, as well as options for the combined use of the drug on a background of fertilizers for yield 25 and 40 t/ha.
Key words: potato, plant growth regulators, Miwal-agro, productivity, cluster analysis.

pp. 23-28


S. L. Eliseev, Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor,
N. N. Iarkova, Cand. Agr. Sci.,
N. V. Ashikhmin, Post-Graduate Student,
Perm State Agricultural Academy
23 Petropavlovskaya St., Perm 614990 Russia
The paper presents the investigation data on seed laboratory germination change and phenotypic characters of oats seeds influenced by agrotechnical factors. Field experiments were conducted in 2008-2010 and 2013-2015 in the experimental and training farm of the Perm State Agricultural Academy on typical for Preduralie sod-podzolic heavy-loamy middle-cultivated soils. Fertility bonitet of their arable layer ranged from 50 to 66 scores. Meteorological conditions in the investigation years were contrastive. Hydrothermal coefficient ranged from 1.0 to 2.4 during the oats vegetation period. It was established that oats allocation upon winter rye or clover increases laboratory germination of oats seeds by 3%, in comparison to laboratory germination of seeds obtained from the plots where barley preceded. Sowing oats with seeding rate 4 Mio/ha raises laboratory germination by 2% in comparison to its value at the seeding rate 6 Mio/ha. Laboratory germination of large-seed cultivar Konkur is 2% higher than in seeds of Dens cultivar whose seeds are middle in size. The analysis shows that oats laboratory germination depends on agrotechniques influencing on thousand-seed weight. Close direct dependence was educed between these indices (r= 0.71). We did not find any close relationship of other seeds quality characters with their laboratory germination.
Key words: oats, cultivar, predecessor, seeding rate, laboratory germination, thousand-seed weight, seed chaffiness, seed uniformity, seed largeness.

pp. 28-34


Iu. N. Zubarev, Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor
L. V. Falaleeva, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor
M. A. Nechunaev, Post-Graduate Student
Perm State Agricultural Academy
23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm 614990 Russia

The paper presents the results of field experiments conducted in 2013 – 2015 on the experimental and training farm of the Perm State Agricultural Academy with the objective to educe the influence of technological rejuvenation methods for perennial grasses on root formation processes in sod-podzolic soils in the Middle Preduralie, as well as dependence of root shoots formation and their mass on different techniques and tillage. Investigations on accounting phonological phases, amounts and mass of sprouts are described. As investigation object we used 13-year old, partly thinned galega orientalis grass stand that is considered to be unacceptable for widescale production. Experiment scheme: 1 – control (intact grass stand); 2 – one-track disking, 3 – two-track disking; 4 – one-track subsurface tillage, at 10–12 cm; 5 – two-track subsurface tillage, at 10–12 cm; 6 – one-track subsurface tillage, at 16–18 cm; 7 – two-track subsurface tillage, at 16–18 cm. Agro-technique in the experiment conformed scientific agriculture system recommended for the Middle Preduralie. Disking was conducted with the unit BDT-3, subsurface tillage – with combined unit APK «Lider» – 4» in the beginning of vegetation 2013. The experiment was laid down on sod-not-deep-podzolic middle loamy soil with topsoil 0-24 cm.
Key words: old grass stands, galega orientalis, rejuvenation, root shoots, tillage.

pp. 34-39


T. V. Ivanchenko, Cand.Agr.Sci,
G. I. Rezanova, V. V. Tupitsyna,
Nizhne-Volzhskiy Agriculture Research Institute
12, Tsentralnaya St., pos. Oblastnoy selskokhosyastvennoy opytnoy stancii,
Gorodishchenskyi rayon, Volgogradskaya oblast, 403013 Russia

Currently, increase in plant production yield capacity and quality can be achieved both through agrotechniques and the use of innovation method – physiologically active substances (PAS) that enable forming guaranteed yield in dry conditions. At Nizhne-Volzhskii Agriculture Research Institute located in chestnut soils of dry-steppe zone in Gorodishchenskii district, Volgogradskaia oblast, we carried out tests on physiologically active substances in tank mixture at pre-sowing treatment of barley seeds of spring cultivar Medicum 139 with further spraying with growth stimulators at a recommended dose in the tillering stage. We studied physiologically active substances: extrasol, bio-done, izabion in tank mixture with the protectant vincit with 25% reduced dose. Positive influence of used means was noted at tillering stage in biometrical investigations. The difference in analyzed variants and control amounted 6.9-12.3%. Analysis of phyto-sanitary state of underground parts of barley showed the efficiency of tank mixtures against fusion-helminth root rots and contributes 50% in variants with bio-done and izobion. A slight plant depression was observed because of bad soil moisture supply. The highest yield of spring barley was obtained at combined application of growth stimulator – izobion. Yield capacity formed due to the increase in productive stems, grain quantity in a ear (19.8%), 1000 seeds weight (5.2%) in comparison to control. The largest produce yield in average for two years was obtained in variant 5 (1.7 t/ha). Protein content 17.73% in barley grain was obtained by using of izabion in control – 15.48%. Thus, bio-preparations in tank mixture activate required physiological plant activities, contribute to the increase in productivity (by 0.3 t/ha) and increase in plant produce quality.
Key words: spring barley, physiologically active substances, yield, root rot, economic efficiency.

pp. 39-44


L. M. Kozlova, Dr. Agr. Sci.; F. A. Popov, Cand. Agr. Sci.;
E. N. Noskova, Cand. Agr. Sci.,
North-East Agricultural Research Institute,
166а Lenin street, Kirov, Russia, 610007

Research was conducted in a 6-field crop rotation on the experiment plot of the North-East Agricultural Research Institute, Kirov. The experiment consisted of three factors with various methods of the basic and pre-sowing tilling of sod-podzolic middle clay soils and application of biological preparations at tillering phase of grain crops. Influence of studied factors considered on grain crops defeat by leaf rust and their productivity. Defeat of spring wheat by leaf rust decreased by 11.6 and 15.2 % (LSD05С = 2.6) at application of the biological preparation Pseudobacterin-2 and the biological preparation on a basis of Streptomyces hygroscopicus strain А4. Decrease of defeat by leaf rust is noted in barley by 12.9 and 19.1 % (LSD05 = 7.1); in oats – by 8.5 and 8.7 % (LSD05 = 3.0). Correlation link between degree of defeat by leaf rust and productivity of spring wheat was negative weak (r = -0.05), of barley and oats — a positive weak (r = 0.13; 0.30). Defeat of grain crops by leaf rust and septoriosis was low 3.2-7.0 %. Application of surface soil tilling reduced productivity of spring wheat by 0.31 t/ha (LSD05 = 0.29), of barley — by 0.79 t/ha (LSD05 = 0.17) in comparison with ploughing. Dry matter yield of pea-oats mix decreased on cultivation with KBM-4.2 on 0.47-0.48 t/ha (LSD05 = 0.36) in comparison with other methods of pre-sowing soil tillage. Studied biological preparations essentially influenced productivity of spring wheat only; so, at entering of Pseudobacterin-2 grain yield was 0.17 t/ha more than at entering of biological preparation on a basis of S. hygroscopicus strain А4 (LSD05 = 0.14).
Key words: basic soil tilling, pre-sowing soil tilling, biological preparation, leaf rust, spring wheat, barley, pea-oats mix.

pp. 44-49


S. V. Kokovkina, Cand. Agr. Sci.,
FSBSI NIISH Komi Republic,
27, Rucheynaya St., Syktyvkar 167023 Russia
E — mail:
In the conditions of Komi Republic in 2011-2013, we studied the influence of biologically active preparations of complex action on sowing qualities of seeds, formation of yield and quality of carrot roots. To obtain the yield of carrots at 40 t/ha with a high content of carotene in the roots and sugars you need to improve the technology of cultivation of carrot by applying environmentally safe, revitalizing growth regulators. It was found that the use of bio-stimulators in the form of aqueous solutions, Verva, «Spruce», NV-101, Gumat of potassium/sodium with micronutrients and Tsircon contributed to the increase in germination speed of seeds. In treated with biopreparation seeds we observed a trend to increase in sowing qualities: vigour – from 59.7 percent (seeds soaked in water) to 67.3% (Verve), laboratory germination – from 66.7 to 78.2 % (NV-101) and complete disinfection of seeds from fungal and bacterial infection. This contributed to the acceleration of germination of carrot for 3-4 days before, the increase of vegetative mass and earlier onset of maturity of the bunch. As a result, early yield amounted in average to 24.0 t/ha, in control – 19.0 t/ha; overall, respectively, 39.7 t/ha and 32.9 t/ha. Treatment in the vegetation period positively affected the accumulation of carotene and sugars in the roots. The content of carotene amounted in average to 9.1, in the control – 8.8 mg%; the content of sugars, respectively, 6.9% and in the control – 6.7%. There was a significant decrease in the content of nitrates in variant with seeds treatment and sowing with the biological product «Spruce». All the drugs contributed to the better preservation of root crops during winter storage. The yield of marketable products increased by 0.8 to 6.8% («Fir»), compared to control without treatment. It is recommended to use biopreparation of NV-101 in the technology of cultivation of carrot in order to maximize productivity 41.2 t/ha during research.
Key words: carrot, growth regulators, seeds, yield, quality, storability.


E. V. Kuzina, Cand. Agr. Sci.,
Ulianovskii Research Institute of Agriculture,
19 Institutskaia St., Timiriazevskii, Ulianovskii rayon, Ulianovskaia oblast, 433315 Russia
The research was carried out on the experimental field of Ulianovskii Research Institute of Agriculture in 2001-2005 in grain-fallow crop rotation with the following alternation: fallow – winter wheat – spring wheat. Autumn tillage at a depth of 20-22 cm with PLN-4-35 was considered as control. Moldboardless tillage was implemented by means of unit SibIME at a depth of 20-22 cm, surface tillage – by means of combined tilling unit APK-3 at a depth of 8-10 cm. Comparative economic evaluation of tillage systems and timing was carried out in the research process. The best economic performance was achieved at surface tillage. When calculating economic efficiency impact of cultivation technologies on the productivity of winter and spring wheat were used the following indicators: productivity, centner/ha, with a gross product value of 1 ha, thous. Rub., production costs, thous. Rub., net income from 1 ha, thous. Rub., cost of 1 CWT products, level of profitability, %. It is established, that the surface treatment carried out in autumn or spring, without prejudice to the qualitative and quantitative harvest allows considerably (22%) lower labor and material costs for primary tillage, by reducing the costs per unit of output helps reduce cost (14-15%) and increase profits by 1 Ruble costs (11-16%), allows the same number of operators to expedite processing threefold and conduct it in optimal agro-technical terms, and provide more productive use of local soil-climatic resources.
Key words: tillage, surface treatment, grain yield, net income, inventories, cost, ROI, winter and spring wheat.

pp. 54-60


A. L. Latypova, Post-Graduate Student;
T. V. Soromotina, Cand. Agr. Sci., Professor,
Perm State Agricultural Academy,
23 Petropavlovskaya St., Perm 614990 Russia

The investigations were carried out in the training and research center Lipogorie at the Perm State Agricultural Academy in 2011-2014. As mulch stuff following types were used: without mulch (control); peat; transparent polythene 120 mcr GOST 103-54; black polythene 120 mcr OST 103-54; white weedmat (Spantex) TC 839001 – 75 – 748288-2005 N 60; black weedmat (Spantex) TC 839001 – 75 -74 – 8288- 2005 N 60. Polythene and weedmat covering was continuous, peat layer constituted 4 cm. Soil temperature was measured by soil thermometer in sunny and overcast days at the depth of 10,20,30 cm, every four hours – at 7am, 11am., 3pm, 7pm, 10pm. Ten sunny and overcast days were analyzed during vegetation. Three-year experiment results show that soil is warmed better when covered with different mulch stuff, and temperature mode is more favorable. Average soil temperature at the depth of 10-30 cm varied in experiment during the day from 14.6°С to 22.5°С – in a sunny day, from 13.5°С to 19.1°С – in an overcast day. Soil was heated more under transparent polythene and white weedmat in sunny days. In overcast days the difference in variants was lower.
Key words; soil temperature, transparent polythene, white weedmat, mulch, peat, heating, sunny day, overcast day.

pp. 61-66


N. G. Loskutov, Post-Graduate Student,
V. A. Voloshin, Dr. Agr. Sci.,
Perm Research Institute of Agriculture
12 Kultury St., Lobanovo 614532 Russia

The paper presents comparative assessment of generalized norms of seeding perennial ryegrass for seed production with different methods of sowing in the first and second year of use by two lyings. Under the conditions of field experiment we studied two ways of sowing: — drill sowing (inter-row 15 cm) and wide-row sowing (inter-row 60 cm), and the four seeding rates of perennial ryegrass — 2, 4, 6, 8 million viable seeds per hectare. When comparing methods, it was revealed that wide-row sowing gave the largest biological and economic yield productivity in average for the first year of use by seeding 2 million viable seeds per hectare – 2.67 and 0.59 t/ha, respectively. In the second year of use in average on two experiments studied seeding rates formed biological productivity per hectare 0.52 and 0.79 t/ha, respectively. The highest biological productivity in the second year of use was obtained at a rate of 4 million viable seeds per hectare at wide-row sowing technique – 0.79 t/ha, but the difference between the rest of seeding rates was insignificant. Growing of perennial ryegrass for seeds can be cultivated both by drill sowing with the seeding rate of 4 million viable seeds per hectare and by wide-row with the seeding rate of 2 million viable seeds per hectare. Thus, obtained in two field experiment data allows recommending perennial ryegrass for widespread use in Permskii krai by organizing own seed production.
Key words: grasses, perennial ryegrass, seeding rate, productivity, sowing method.

pp. 66-72


V. I. Makarov, Associate Professor, Cand. Agr. Sci.,
Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy,
11, Studencheskaya St., Izhevsk, Russia, 426069

The effect of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) on the acidity of sod-podzolic sandy-loam soil and the composition of lysimetric waters were studied in vegetation experiments (2014-2015) in the Udmurt Republic. The experiment simulates percolative regime and different frequency of fertilizing annual doze of 0.3g N/kg of soil (4 and 20 times) against two backgrounds (without plants and spreading marigold). Sodium nitrate does not change acid-base balance of fallow sod-podzolic sandy-loam soils under percolative regime. The use of ammonium nitrate leads to an increase of potential soil acidity at 1.27-1.47 units рНKCl, 3.12 mmol/100g Ng. When it happens, the standard acidification NH4NO3 is 780 kg СаСО3 /100 kg of nitrogen of agricultural chemicals. Growing marigolds spreading by 4-times use of agricultural chemicals is accompanied by «physiological alkalinity» of sodium nitrate 95 kg СаСО3/100 kg N and «physiological acidity» of ammonium nitrate 180 kg СаСО3/100 kg N. The increasing frequency of fertilizing up to 12 times per vegetation season reduces the effect of NaNO3 «physiological alkalinity» and NH4NO3«physiological acidity». When sodium nitrate is used to control plant nutrition, alkalization of soils is not only due to «physiological alkalinity» but also because of «biochemical alkalinity». It is the result of biological denitrification in the soil with NaNO3 and easily hydrolysable organic matter. The use of heavy rate unit doses of sodium nitrate and ammonium nitrate is accompanied by washing nitrate ions, calcium and magnesium out light sod-podzolic soils. The increasing of frequency of nitrogen fertilizing (12 times per vegetation season) reduces the concentration of these ions in lysimetric waters by several times.
Key words: sodium saltpeter, ammonium saltpeter, sod-podzolic soil, soil acidity, physiological alkalinity, biochemical alkalinity, physiological acidity, lysimetric waters.

pp. 72-81


O. A. Olenin, Post-Graduate Student,
Vyatka State Agricultural Academy,
133 Oktyabrskaya St., Kirov 610017 Russia

The purpose of the investigation was to justify irrationality of single crop and advisability of mixed spring wheat sowing for food grain in the zones with insufficient moisture, especially under increase in climate aridity, in Syria’s agriculture. Destruction of social and economical potential of Syria (2011-2016) was a consequence of agro-ecological catastrophe caused by global climate changes and application of traditional technogenic agriculture. Syria’s agriculture shows irrationality of growing single spring wheat sowing as a crop providing food security for the state under increase of climate aridity. Analysis of both spring and winter wheat biological properties proves initial irrationality of traditional single crop growing in the zones with insufficient moisture. For example, average yield capacity of spring wheat in 1986-2015 in Samarskaya oblast constituted 1.19 t/ha, what is 5.09 times less than the crop bioclimatic potential. Analysis of climatic changes for the recent 30-50 years showed significant deterioration of conditions for early ripening crops’ growth and development, and primarily for spring wheat. For this reason it is necessary to develop nature-like agrotechniques and technologies of growing that increase grain units output per 1 ha, sustainability and stability of agrophytocenoses based on processes of natural ecosystems and maximum use of natural renewable resources. Mixed sowings for food grain and elongation of production process (within adaptive-landscape agriculture) as one of the elements of cultivation technology biologization shall be investigated in all climatic zones of Russia.
Key words: global climate changes, agro-ecological catastrophe, food security, spring wheat, natural phytocenosis, agrophytocenosis, cultivation technique biologization, mixed sowings.

pp. 81-88


M. V. Rogozin, Dr. Bio. Sci., Associate Professor
Perm State National Research University,
4, Genkelya St., Perm 614000 Russia

The results of the study of stands growth process on data of 349 taxation areas and their development modeling results were summarized. The models of the current growth in natural forests and crops close to the variants of development of forests on old arable lands were considered. The author discussed two forest stands development laws: the E.L. Maslakov law of trees growth in young stands and the G.S. Razin general law of the development of one-layered stands. It is shown that the initial density separates stands into different development lines (models) for entire lifetime. These models show that in the development of plants there is the phase of progress, where growing increases, and there is a phase of regression, when it falls. On the basis of the G.S. Razin law, 15 models of spruce natural stands development and 4 models of forest cultures that take into account the initial density were developed. Their analysis showed that control the frequency of forest stands should be done before outlying flattening lines of development. Thinning, affecting the growth «moves» the development line to a more productive model at the initial density 5/1 thou.pcs/ha and higher, i.e. relatively dense plantations, should be done not later than 20 years. At a low initial density, equal to 1.0-1.65 thou.pcs/ha it can be done later, at 40 years. In average on initial density forest stands (approx. 3.5±1.0 thou.pcs/ha) thinning should be done before 30 years. Selecting a desired model of development increases the stock of medium and large timber up to 3 times, and after early thinning the forest will be technically ripe already in 40 years after thinning. It has been suggested to immediately solve the status of overgrown fields: conservation for agriculture or the transmission to forest fund for their care.
Key words: plantation growing, course of stand growth, development model, cutting maintenance of forests, progress and regress.

pp. 88-94


M. Erb, ISA Certified Arborist, Director of noncommercial organization «Tree Pittsburgh»,
City of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
A. V. Romanov, Cand.Agr.Sci., Associate Professor
Perm State Agricultural Academy
23 Petropavlovskaya St., Perm 614990 Russia

Non-profit organization «Tree Pittsburgh» and City of Pittsburgh government partner to maintain urban greenery. In addition to fund-raising from charitable foundations and private investors for the maintenance of green spaces, the organization provides training to volunteers and organizes educational programs for local residents. To reduce urban forest restoration expenses «Tree Pittsburgh» created its own nursery on an abandoned industrial site in 2014. This site successively was used for paint and varnish manufacturing, oil companies and steel mills during the last 150 years. The last industrial use was finished in 2008. The site was selected for its convenient placement in the city, as well as proximity to a water source, necessary for the cultivation of planting material. To reduce interaction of trees and people with the industrial soil on site «Tree Pittsburgh» is adding fill (soil/rocks) from clean sites (often construction projects) nearby. This new fill is spread out on the surface and graded so that the nursery has a level surface. Then workers place a geotextile or root barrier on top of the ground to prevent tree roots from growing from the bottom of the containers and into the fill soil. The area suitable for the seedling nursery is 1.21 ha. The nursery is used to cultivate container grown seedlings and saplings. To protect container material from freezing in winter and overheating in summer containers are buried in ridges of wood chips. Seedlings are started in 14 greenhouses then they are taken outside to grow in an open field. The seedlings are grown to a maximum height of 1 meter. Seedlings take 3 to 7 years depending on the species. At close to 1 meter in height, they are big enough to have an immediate visual impact after planting. This helps protect the tree from mowers and the general public. These trees are also small enough and light enough that they can be carried to remote sites or moved down steep hill sides with little effort.
Key words: ornamental nursery, industrial site, container growing, Tree Pittsburgh.

pp. 94-100


M. I. Shevlyakova, Post-Graduate Student
S. N. Luganskaya, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor
Landscape Design Department,
Ural State Forest Engineering University
37 Sibirskii trakt St., Yekaterinburg, 620100, Russia

Objects of historical heritage were studied in Yekaterinburg in Sverdlovskskaia oblast with the aim of restoration of lost image. While city possesses a large quantity of cultural heritage sites, Kharitonov’s garden is unique as the only extant public park with total square of 6.99 hectares. Kharitonov’s garden has undergone stocktaking twice (2004 and 2015), including determination of species composition, main biophysical characteristics, sanitary condition points, which can be used to solve issues of reconstruction to restore the lost historical appearance. The range of trees and shrubs of the Kharitonov’s garden is represented by 43 species, of which 1676 trees and 207 shrubs (including curtains). In the garden grow types of linden, birch, larch, spruce, rowan, cherry, apple, lilac (55.1 %) that represent historical range of plants. Range increased by 11 species in the last 60 years. Some species of trees in the park are represented by new plantings; however, the majority remains in old-growth plantings. A weighted average score of the sanitary state of the plants in the park is 2.7 which equates to the weakened state. The stability of the plantations is ensured by the predominance of durable and resistant to the urban environment types in the park and timely interventions for care. Reconstruction of Kharitonov’s garden plantings within the concept of the gradual restoration of the lost architectural and planting landscape appears to be possible by replanting trees and shrubs in areas of planned sanitary felling, cleaning up litter and low-value coppice curtains based on the materials inventory and project proposals developed on their basis taking the historical significance into account.
Key words: Yekaterinburg’s Students Creativity Palace, Kharitonov’s gardens, reconstruction, cultural heritage preservation, documentation archive, sanitary condition.


pp. 101-107


R. F. Kurbanov, Dr. Eng. Sci., Professor;
I. N. Khodyrev, Post-Graduate Student
Vyatka State Agricultural Academy
133 Oktyabrsky Prospect, Kirov, 610017, Russia

Radical and simplificated amelioration methods are used to improve natural and cultural forage lands. The latter is the most preferable in term of energy and resource saving. To implement this technology combined machines are used equipped with milling (active) working organs. L-shaped knives serve as working organs. Series-produced combined sod sower SDK-2.8 has a covered miller section with tillage organs in the form of two plates with L-shaped knives. A drawback of band tilling by means of L-shaped knives is evulsion of sod pieces out of the band edges and their sliding into tilled band. It deteriorates the quality of sowing and packing. Different constructions of L-shaped knives are often used to eradicate this drawback. However, these tillage tools have increased energy consumption of the process due to the loosening elements located on the radial section of knife, what increases dynamic component of soil resistance. We recommend the improved design of such knives where the wing has a cutout of metal with forming rear edge part bent at the angle α in a longitudinal vertical plane of the wing strut in the form of a trapezoid and the side edge along which a loosening element is rigidly fixed in the form of a plate. On-the-farm research on improvement of constructive parameters of designed knives was conducted in Kirovskaya oblast. At determining physical and chemical properties during the experiments, soil relative moisture constituted 14.9 %, soil hardness – 23.98 kg/cm2, sod cohesion – 10.08 kN/m2. The Box-Behnken three-level experiment plan of the second order was implemented for three factors. Optimal indicators of the working process of cutter with improved L-shaped knives are obtained at following knife parameters: height of ripper h=10 mm, magnitude of cutter knife limb-wing b=10 mm, angle of bending of cutter knife wing =30º. At these values of factors, soil crumbling degree of the fraction 0…0.03 m ranges from Y1=73.00..74.49 %, soil crumbling degree of the fraction more than 0.03 m Y2=25.51..26.25 % , and machine’s tractive resistance =1.13..1.21 kN.
Key words: sower SDK-2.8, soil cutter, L-shaped knife, tillage, soil crumbling degree, tractive resistance.

pp. 107-112


V. I. Kurdyumov, Dr. Eng. Sci., Professor; P. S. Ageev, Master’s Degree Student
A. A. Pavlushin, Dr. Eng. Sci., Assistant Professor; G. V. Karpenko, Cand. Eng. Sci., Associate Professor
Ulyanovsk State Agricultural Academy named after P.A. Stolypin,
1 Bulvar Novyi Venets, Ulyanovsk, 432017 Russia
S. G. Mudarisov, Dr. Eng. Sci., Professor
Bashkir State Agrarian University
34, 50-letie Oktiabria St., Ufa, 450001 Russia
V. I. Dolgov, Lecturer,
Ulyanovsk State University Automotive College
158, Naberezhnaia reki Sviiagi St., Ulyanovsk, 432063 Russia

The methodology of the system analysis, which is based on the integrated use of the principles of mathematical modeling and mathematical theory of large systems, as well as the achievements of modern computer technology enable us to move from a real drying process to its formalized mathematical model. In this case, the input formalized physical and chemical system receives streams of continuous media, characterized by a vector of input variables (composition and state parameters of the individual phases), which under the influence of the processing technology factors are converted into the vector of output variables. The real relationship is replaced by its mathematical model, which shows the dependence of the vector of output variables from the input variables and the state variables of the object during the drying time. Explicit model is a closed system of the analytical description of the process in the form of differential, integral, and differential-integral equations with the appropriate boundary conditions and empirical relationships. The conducted experimental studies of designed installations for grain drying enabled us to determine the optimum operating conditions. This was achieved with the following regime parameters: speed of movement of grain vr = 0.033 m/s, average temperature of the heating surface ts opt = 58 ° C, air velocity in the machine vB = 5.44 m/s. It was found that the minimum heat for the evaporation of moisture from the grain qopt constituted 3.1 MJ/kg.
Key words: mathematical modeling, grain dryer, contact heating, experiment planning.


pp. 113-128


N. L. Shibanova, Cand. Bio. Sci., Associate Professor,
Perm State National Research University
15 Bukireva St., Perm 614990 Russia

In the Permskii krai, 32 cenopopulations of 14 Orchidaceae Juss. species were studied for 12 years (2001-2012). Demographic indicators such as aggregate number, density and age structure were used to assess cenopopulations. Environmental characteristics of the habitats of orchids were given on a scale of E. Landolt. It was found that the lowest aggregate number is characteristic for cenopopulations C. rubra, E. helleborine, L. ovata, majority of the cenopopulations G. conopsea, and one cenopopulation C. guttatum (usually no more than 80 individuals), the largest – for species Dactylorhiza Nevski and coenopopulation E. palustris (several hundreds and thousands of individuals). The studied species located in well-lit environments, a number of species (C. guttatum, D. incarnata, L. cordata) can be found in some shade. Species prefer clay and peaty, wet and raw, rarely dry (G. conopsea), weakly acidic and acidic soil. Most cenopopulations are characterized by right-age spectrum. Vegetative-oriented age spectrum was often observed at the rhizomatous species. In cenopopulations of tuberous root species maximum age spectrum may account for both the adult vegetative and generative individuals. Some cenopopulations D. fuchsii, D. incarnata, G. conopsea do not have juvenile individuals. This is not considered a deviation from the norm, as the species with tuberous roots are characterized by annual fluctuations of reproduction. In general, the studied cenopopulations are in good condition and do not require the development of additional security measures.
Key words: orchids, rare species, cenopopulations, aggregate number, density, age structure.


pp. 129-133


E. A. Doronin-Dorgelinskiy, Cand. Vet. Sci.
Perm State Agricultural Academy
23, Petropavlovskaya St, Perm, 614990, Russia
A. V. Sogrina, Veterinarian, Veterinary clinic “Umka”
25, Bogdana Khmelnitskogo St., Perm, 614000, Russia

The dirofilariasis is a dangerous transmissive zoonotic disease caused by parasitic nematodes in subcutaneous tissues Dirofilaria repens Raiet et Henry, 1911 or in lung vessels – Dirofilaria immitis Leidy, 1856. Wide range of wild animals, domestic carnivorous and even human can be infected with this disease. Diagnostic methods in humans are associated with certain difficulties, and nonspecific localization of parasites is possible. The article presents statistical data on morbidity in humans in the territory of the Russian Federation, as well as the retrospective analysis of regulations concerning the development of measures of fight against this dangerous zoonotic disease. And this disease is not mentioned in SanPiN 3.2.569-96. Later dirofilariasis was included in SanPiN 3.2.1333-03 in the category of «Rare helminthiasis». The current SanPiN 3.2.3215-14 regulates order of organization of preventive measures for dirofilariasis. In our opinion, for successful fight against dirofilariasis medical and veterinarian services must strictly follow the applicable sanitary rules and regulations, covering all susceptible animals, including homeless. Therapeutic and prophylactic treatment of animals is necessary to conduct by highly effective drugs with wide spectrum of action including against Dirofilaria spp.
Key words: SanPiN, dirofilariasis, human, dogs.

pp. 133-140


S. V. Nikolaev, Post-Graduate Student
I. G. Konopeltsev, Dr. Vet. Sci., Professor
Vyatka State Agricultural Academy
133 Oktyabrskaya St., Kirov 610017 Russia

In conditions of the Agrofirm Doronichi in the Kirovskaya oblast in 2010 – 2015 we monitored the effect of increasing milk productivity on the frequency of obstetric pathology in holsteinized black-motley breed cows under tied housing. For 6 years, increase in milk yield in cows from 5700 to 9119 kg was accompanied by abortion in 4.4% cases and postpartum endometritis in 46.2%. Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the uterus is 10.8% more often diagnosed in heifers than in animals of higher age. Cows recovered from postpartum endometritis had the period from calving to pregnancy 149.7 days, and the insemination index was 3.7, which is 53.8 and 1.3 days longer, respectively, than in healthy animals. Ozonized emulsion consisting of fish oil, gindoxin and emulsifier, has antibacterial activity against Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas Egido, and its intrauterine introduction during the first 6 hours increases contractional index in heifers with acute endometritis by 53.5%. The prescription of ozonized emulsion in the uterine cavity after normal birth giving reduces the incidence of postpartum endometritis in heifers by 36.7%, ensures their fertilization during 5 months in the period from calving to pregnancy 68.9 days with the fertilization ratio of 1.5.
Key words: obstetric pathology, cows, heifers, ozonized emulsion, postpartum endometritis, prevention.

pp. 140-144


N. A. Tatarnikova, Dr. Vet. Sci., Professor
Perm State Agricultural Academy
23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm 614990 Russia
I. N. Zhdanova, Cand. Vet. Sci.
Perm Agricultural Scientific Research Institute
12 Kultury St., Lobanovo 614532 Russia

Scientific and practical experiments were carried out at the Animal Husbandry Department of the basis of the federal state scientific institution Perm Research Institute of Agriculture on the experimental and training farm «Lipovaya Gora» in 4 groups of clinically healthy animals in a period of intense milking, 12 animals in each group. A new prevention method for postpartum period diseases in cows in the period of intensive milking was developed with the use of bioinfusion and histogen. The cows of experimental group I were injected intramuscularly with the drug bioinfusion at a dose of 2.5 ml/100 kg of live weight, since the 15th day after calving, daily, for 7 days. The cows of experimental group II were injected with histogen subcutaneously at a dose of 0.02 ml/1 kg of live weight, daily, since the 15th day after calving, daily, for 7 days. The cows of experimental group III – with bioinfusin intramuscularly at a dose of 2.5 ml/100 kg of live weight, since the 15th day after calving, daily for 7 days subcutaneously, and the drug gestagen at a dose of 0.02 ml/1 kg in the 15th day after calving, daily, for 7 days. The clinical condition of the cows before and after calving was taken into account. It was established that the use of bioinfusin and histogen contributed to the prevention of postpartum diseases in cows, prophylactic efficacy was increased by 33.4%.
Key words: retention, endometritis, immunomodulators, lactating cows, prevention of postpartum diseases.


pp. 145-153


F. Z. Michurina, Dr. Geo. Sci., Professor; A. I. Latysheva, Cand. Econ. Sci., Associate Professor,
Perm State Agricultural Academy
3 Lunacharskogo St., Perm, 614000, Russia
S. B. Michurin, Cand. Geo. Sci., Associate Professor,
Perm State National Research University
1 Henkel St., Perm, 614068 Russia
The paper describes three paradigms of development – components of the concept for functional enrichment of rural areas. The first is the inevitable supremacy of the functions of production, providing the population with food and raw materials for light industry. This function within rural areas of industrial regions is complemented by implementation of mineral raw materials extraction. The second paradigm reflects the increasingly declaring appropriateness of recreational use of areas due to the need to improve the living standard of the rural population, need for a proper rest, the development of interest to natural environment and history of the territory and functioning of residents and the needs of rural residents for achieving socio-economic sustainability. The third paradigm describes the use of toponymy in the creation of branding rural areas, forming its image to attract investment and to obtain immediate results in the form of targeted pricing produced and implemented services, creation of new jobs, growth of tourist potential. It was established that the economic component of a new society led to some changes that educed three consequences of modern production relations. The first one lies in forming of competitive environment and land, labor and capital market. The second one lies in income growth of working population. The third – in shortage of working places and entrepreneurship activity.
Such triune gist of social policy created the conditions for forming paradigm of toponymic branding.
Key words: space, rural area, concept, paradigm, research, practice, function, production, tourism, toponymy, branding.

pp. 154-159


R. A. Shchinova, Dr. Econ. Sci., Professor,
D. A. Loginov, Dr. Econ. Sci., Professor,
Vyatka State Agricultural Academy,
133,Octyabrskiy Prospect, Kirov, 610017 Russia

Under the conditions of the Kirov region in 2008-2015 we studied the processes of agrarian development based on tax regulation and territorial economic stratification of agrarian areas. The main directions of the state agrarian policy of Russia, as well as the tax policy for 2016 and the planning period of 2017 and 2018 were considered. The gross agricultural output in the Kirov region at current prices for the years 2009-2013 increased by 13.1%. In average per hectare of agricultural land 8522.6 rubles of gross agricultural output were made in 2013. The intensity of agriculture is very heterogeneous between the territories of the Kirov region. The maximum value of gross agricultural output per hectare of land owned by the regional center is stable. The agrarian backwardness of the territory is caused not only by natural factors, but also the management of efficiency in a particular area. The uneven development of agribusiness in the region through the territory led to the formation of specific regional clusters of certain types, each of which needs its specificity government support and regulatory approaches. Reimbursement of value added tax for agricultural producers in the region has led to a negative performance of the tax burden in 2009 and 2013. Resource payments are practically invisible in the composition of tax payments. The most significant growth — 1.62 times – seen on local taxes, that is, the land tax and a half times increased revenues of the unified agricultural tax and a 42% increased revenues of value added tax and state tax. The tax burden of agricultural producers of the Kirov region is several times less than of the industry average. The indicator of the relative tax burden is a key tool in the assessment of the tax system of regulation agribusiness companies.
Key words: regional agribusiness, agricultural zoning areas, government program, gross output of agriculture, development strategy, economic cluster, taxation, tax expenditures budget, tax regulation, municipality.