PROCESSES AND MACHINERY OF AGRO-ENGINEERING SYSTEMS
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF DETERMINATION METHOD OF THE MOST SUITABLE POSITION FOR CHARGING HOLE IN THE GRAIN CRUSHER OF IMPACT-REJECTED ACTION (=PDF=)
S. Yu. Bulatov, Cand. Tech. Sci., Associate Professor; K. E. Mironov, Senior Lecturer;
V. N. Nechaev, Cand. Tech. Sci., Associate Professor,
SBEI HE Nizhniy Novgorod State Engineering and Economic University,
22a, Oktyabrskaya St., Knyaginino, 606340, Russia
P. A. Savinykh, Dr. Tech. Sci., Professor,
Federal Agrarian Scientific Center of the North-East
166a, Lenina St., Kirov, 610007, Russia
In 2012-2018, the process of interaction of grain heap particles with the working parts of crusher was investigated in the laboratories of Nizhniy Novgorod State Engineering and Economic University in order to optimize crusher constructive parameters. Numerical methods were used to construct a mathematical model, as well as a laboratory installation was created to research the process. As a result of experimental and theoretical studies, expressions were obtained to determine the speed and coordinates of grain heap particles in a grinding chamber of the developed grain crusher. The analysis of obtained dependencies allowed us to predict the caryopsis trajectory and to assume the place of its output from a grinding chamber ‒ peripheral or end sieve. The boundary values of coordinates where caryopsis hits the joint of sieve in its input into the grinding chamber were calculated. The conclusion is made about the possibility of a symmetric arrangement of the charging hole in relation to the obtained boundary values, in which the number of caryopsis passing through the peripheral sieve will be equal to the number of caryopsis passing through the end sieve. The result of experimental and theoretical dependences allow predicting the load of peripheral and end sieves and to choose the optimal position for the charging hole. The developed method established that the most balanced distribution of groat on peripheral and end sieves under crusher operating parameters (angular velocity of rotor 314 sec-1, width of beater – 50 mm, angle of beater – 45°) is observed at a symmetric position of charging hole when x = 65 mm if b = 25 mm and x= 73 mm if b = -1 mm.
Key words: grain, crusher, rotor beater, movement of a particle, grinding chamber, optimal parameters, position of a charging hole, balanced load of rotor, numerical method.
DEVELOPMENT OF ADJUSTMENT METHOD FOR VIBRO-PNEUMATIC SEPARATOR WITH AN IMPROVED DESIGN BY THE WHEAT PURIFICATION FROM HARD-SEPARABLE IMPURITIES (=PDF=)
V.D. Galkin, Dr. Tech. Sci., Professor;
A. A. Khavyev, Cand. Tech. Sci.;
V. A. Khandrikov, Cand. Tech. Sci.;
K. A. Grubov, S. V. Galkin, A. F. Fedoseev – Engineers,
FSBEI HE Perm SATU
113 Geroev Khasana St., Perm 614025 Russia
The research was carried out on the experimental installation at the Department of Farm Machines and Equipment of FSBEI HE Perm SATU. Three-level design of two factors was implemented for the development of adjustment method for vibro-pneumatic separator by the wheat seed purification from wild radish fragments. Wheat seeds of the Irgina variety with normal amount of moisture were chosen for the research. At specific loading equal to 2.9 kg/sec•m2, the following experimental factors were accepted: frequency of deck vibrations and longitudinal deck tilt at vibration amplitude equal to 0.015 m, installation angle of deck α = 24°, directional angle of vibrations ε = 30°. The density of impurities output while seed loss into waste comprises 10% was used as a composite indicator of machine exploitation quality. Experiments on wheat seeds of the Irgina variety were conducted for the development of adjustment method for vibro-pneumatic separator by the purification of wheat seeds from wild oat. The experiments were carried out on the frequency of vibrations equal to 410,430,450,470 min-1 which was changed by frequency controller. In the process of research, velocity of wind flow was set up that way when the material on deck is getting boil without blowing out. At transversal deck tilt equal to 0, the longitudinal deck was set up at the angle of 5° on the basis of prior experiments. The density of wild oat output and seed loss into waste were chosen as a composite indicator of machine exploitation quality. Being based on the research results, the adjustment method for vibro-pneumatic separator with an improved design was developed as two nomograms which allow preparing separator for the purification of wheat seeds of elite and original categories from fragments of wild radish and oat with the density of impurities output up to 96-98%.
Key words: vibro-pneumatic separator, parameters, mode, nomograms.
GEAR PARAMETERS OF SEEDING MECHANISMS OF SDK-2.8 SOD SEEDER FOR MULTICOMPONENT BAND SOWING OF PERENNIAL GRASSES (=PDF=)
R. F. Kurbanov,Dr. Eng. Sci., Professor;
A. V. Sozontov, Cand. Tech. Sci., Associate Professor;
R. M. Gorbunov,Cand. Tech. Sci., Associate Professor
Vyatka State Agricultural Academy
133, Oktyabrsky Prospect, Kirov, 610017, Russia
V. Iu. Mokiev, Cand. Tech. Sci.
Federal Agrarian Scientific Center of the North-East
166a, Lenina St., Kirov, 610007, Russia
The article deals with the research of gear performance of seeding mechanisms of SDK-2.8 sod seeder while making of successively alternating plots of clover and bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus). The aim of research was to determine the gear design and technological parameters. Box-Behnken three-level design of second-order experiment for three factors was implemented for this purpose. A gross output (gross harvest) of hay from grass canopy — Q, t (Y1) as well as a length proportion of alternating plots — Llot/Lcl were accepted as optimization criteria. The following three factors were studied during the experiment: frequency of disk rotation with its contact sectors n, min-1 (x1), angle of contact sector α, degree (х2), seeding rate of grass grains Ngr, kg/ha (х3). Adjustable seeding mechanisms ensured seeding rates of clover and bird’s-foot trefoil. It is obtained by experimental research that during the seeding of clover and bird’s-foot trefoil in successively alternating plots, an optimum value of plots length proportion in treating band Llot/Lcl which ensures an annual stable gross output of hay from grass stand is equal to 2.1. Parameters for optimum exploitation conditions were determined as follow: angle of contact sector — 240°, rotation frequency of disk with the contact sector – 0.61 min-1. The band sowing of red clover and Lotus corniculatus in successively alternating plots allows obtaining an annual stable gross output of hay. At the same time, the period of productive use of improved grass stand will be 8-10 years.
Key words: productive use, band sowing, successively alternating plots, perennial grasses, sod seeder, seeding mechanisms, disk with contact sectors, angle of contact sector.
THE INFLUENCE OF CIRCUMFERENTIAL VELOCITY OF ROLLERS AND MATERIAL MOISTURE CONTENT ON THE MAIN INDICATORS OF WORKFLOW OF A TWO-STEP ROLLER MACHINE (=PDF=)
V. A. Оdegov, Cand. Eng. Sci.; A. S. Komkin, Cand. Eng. Sci.; V. V. Shilin, Cand. Eng. Sci.,
FSBEI HE Vyatskaya State Agricultural Academy
133, Oktyabrskiy Prospect, Kirov, 610017, Russia
In the initial phase as a result of the series of single-factor experiments conducted in Kirovskaya Oblast on grain of the “Bios-1” barley variety with moisture of 12, 24, 30 and 36% and weighted average mean in thickness equal to 2.85 mm, the value range of rational varying by factors (moisture – 12-36%, circumferential velocity – 4.71-6.61 m/sec) were defined. These experiments allowed determining intervals varying by factors in further multifactorial experimental studies and obtain adequate regression models as well as two-dimensional cross-sections of the response surface. The following optimal parameters were obtained: “W” for material moisture (grain) must be within the range 29…34%, but “v” for circumferential velocity of rollers within the range 5.6-6.3 m/sec. In this case, the energy intensity “E” and specific energy consumption “q” of two-step grain crushing process will have values of E = 4.3…6.5 kWh/t and q = 2.6…4.1 kWh/t/crushing degree unit. This ensures the maximum throughput of two-roller machine tool Q = 1…1.4 t/ha when gathering with sieves ø 2.5 mm is no more than 0.4%, which complies with the technical requirements.
Key words: two-stage crushing, grain, moisture, circumferential velocity, energy intensity, specific energy consumption.
OPTIMIZATION OF THE MAIN PARAMETERS OF A HAMMER SHREDDER
IN THE PREPARATION OF ROUGHAGES (=PDF=)
P. N. Solonshchikov, Cand. Tech. Sci., Associate Professor;
E. V. Kosolapov, Cand. Tech. Sci.,
FSBEI HE Vyatka State Agricultural Academy
133, Oktyabrsky prospect, Kirov, 610017, Russia
The article is devoted to the research of different hammer designs and their impact on shredder performance indicators in order to optimize its parameters. The research was carried out in 2009-2018 in the laboratory of the FSBEI HE Vyatka SAA. At the same time, the substantiation of working tool design was made theoretically and experimentally. During the course of research, it was figured out that hammers should have such form which would allow reducing centrifugal force that leads to increase in consumption of energy and rapid wear and tear of a working tool in general. A new form of the hammer implemented in a roughages shredder allows improving the basic technical parameters of shredder during the process of cutting and grinding. Experimental research on a shredder-distributor showed that if the frequency of tanker rotation n = 9 min-1 and the tilt angle of a hammer rotor
α = 20° then the throughput capacity of machine is equal to Q = 4.7 t/h, specific energy consumption
Э = 1.0 kW•h/(ton•refining ratio unit) power consumption P = 17 kW; refining ratio λ = 3.8.
Key words: chopper-distributor, installation angle of hammer rotor, frequency of tanker rotation, throughput capacity, rotor, hammer, tool, power, grinding degree.
THE INFLUENCE OF MINERAL FERTILIZERS ON GRAIN YIELD CAPACITY OF OAT (=PDF=)
V. D. Abashev, Dr. Agr. Sci.;
E. N. Noskova, Cand. Agr. Sci.
Federal Agrarian Scientific Center of North-East
166-а, Lenina St., Kirov, 610007, Russia
In 1972-2017 the influence of increasing doses of complete mineral fertilizer (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 kg of acting ingredient/ha) on the yield capacity of different oat varieties was studied in six-field grain-fallow-grass crop rotation at long-term station of Federal Agrarian Scientific Center of North-East. The experiment was conducted on sod-podzolic, middle loamy soil formed from eluvium of Perm clay. Argochemical parameters of plough layer at the beginning of experiment were the following: рНKCl. – 4.8, content of Р2О5 – 46 mg/kg, К2О – 160 mg/kg of soil, humus – 1.5%. Mineral fertilizers such as ammonium nitrate, double superphosphate, and potassium chloride were applied to the pre-plant cultivation. The yield capacity of all studied oat varieties increased up to N60P60К60, N90P90К90 with increase in mineral fertilizer doses. Higher doses of NPK did not improve the yield capacity of oat. On average over the nine years, the maximum yield of chaffy oat varieties (3.27 t/ha) was obtained at application of complete mineral fertilizers of 60 kg of acting ingredient/ha; the yield capacity of control variant was 1.55 t/ha. On average over the nine years, the recoupment of 1 kg of acting ingredient of applied fertilizers by chaffy oat grain was equal to 3.9-9.6 kg. The highest recoupment was observed in variant with a minimal dose of N30P30К30. Each increase in fertilizer dose led to decrease in recoupment by oat grain. Among all chaffy oat varieties cultivated in study, the maximum yield capacity (4.08 t/ha) was achieved in 2003-2005 by the quality-valuable Argamak variety (selected in Flenskaya selective station) with N120P120К120 fertilizer dose. On average over the six years, the maximum yield capacity of naked oat varieties (3.17 t/ha) was obtained when complete mineral fertilizer was applied in a dose of N120P120К120. The yield capacity of oat was mainly determined by application of nitric and phosphoric fertilizers.
Key words: oat, mineral fertilizers, yield capacity, variety, recoupment of fertilizers by grain, economic effectiveness of fertilizers.
INFLUENCE OF INOCULATION AND NITROGEN FERTILIZER DOSES ON GROAT QUALITIES OF PEA AND ITS YIELD CAPACITY IN THE CONDITIONS OF SOD-PODZOLIC, HEAVY LOAMY SOIL OF PREDURALIE (=PDF=)
M. A. Aleshin, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor,
Perm State Agro-Technological University
23, Petropavlovskaia St., Perm, 614990, Russia
Under the conditions of sod-podzolic, heavy loamy soil of Preduralie the field trial with large plots was laid out to determine the responsiveness of the Agroiltel pea variety to increasing nitrogen doses applied during the pre-seeding tillage of soil. Technology of cultivating a trial crop, along with maintaining the particular elements of cultivation technology, included treatment of seed material with bacterial preparation “Rhyzotorphin”. The research course led to the determination of grain yield capacity, quality indicators and biochemical composition as well as the estimate of cooking qualities of pea grain and the compliance of pea groat qualities with SUST (stands for the State Union Standard, Rus.; GOST) requirements. As a result of the research, the higher pea plant productivity had been obtained at inoculating of pea seeds with bacterial preparation (increase in yield capacity was equal to 0.47 t/ha at HCP05 = 0.23 t/ha). Application of nitrogen “start dose” of 30 kg per hectare contributed to a reliable increase in the productivity of trial crop by 0.32 t/ha at HCP05 = 0.14 t/ha. A consequent increase in nitrogen dose from 45 kg/ha to 75 kg/ha led to decrease in productivity that is essentially connected with the inhibition of life-sustaining activity of Rhizobia. The more significant increase in grain productivity by 0.39 t/ha (in comparison with the control variant) was recorded after the nitrogen application in a dose of 90 kg/ha. The organoleptic indicators of grain complied with the requirements of SUST 6201-68 for split pea. Grain obtained in all variants of the trial complied with the requirements of pea grain standard for storage and delivery (SUST 28674-90). Cooking property of pea groat was estimated as a uniform, more than 97% of seeds had mild consistency, were easily chewing and remained wholeness of covers to the end of cooking. Culinary estimation was good for all groat variants of research.
Key words: pea, nitrogen doses, bacterial preparation, yield capacity, organoleptic indicators, culinary estimation.
ADAPTIVE VARIETIES OF BARLEY FOR PERM KRAI (=PDF=)
S. L. Eliseev, Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor,
FSBEI HE Perm SATU
23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm, 614990, Russia
The paper deals with the comparative assessment of adaptability of barley varieties cultivating in Perm Krai. The aim of research is to determine the most adaptive varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown in Perm Krai. The data of competitive variety trail conducted in 2011-2017 in three natural and climatic zones such as northern (state variety testing area in Kudymkar), central (state variety testing area in Nytva), and southern (state variety testing area in Kueda) was used for the analyses. The following parameters were determined: genetic flexibility, coefficients of adaptability, intensity and ecological sustainability. The research was carried out under contrasting meteorological conditions. In 2011-2014 the most preferable moisture conditions were observed, the hydrothermal coefficient (HTC) in vegetation period was equal to 1.3; 1.4; 1.2 и 1.7, respectively. Excessive moisture (HTC=2.4 and 2.5) was considered in 2015 and 2017 whereas 2016 was highlighted by droughts (HTC= 0.9). Released varieties of spring barley recommended for cultivation in Perm Krai have different adaptive response to the conditions of variety testing areas and natural and climatic zones. The Rodnik Prikamyia variety possesses a high adaptive performance at the whole territory of Perm Krai due to its fairly high yield capacity in the least favourable years. That provides stability as well as ecological sustainability to the above mentioned variety in time and space. Along with the Rodnik Prikamiya, a high adaptive performance is represented by the Sonet barley in the northern zone and the Svyatich barley in the southern.
Key words: spring barley, variety, yields capacity, variety adaptability.
ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF NEW POTATO HYBRIDS AND VARIETIES RECOMMENDED FOR CULTIVATION IN THE MIDDLE ZONE OF TAIGA IN EURO-NORTH-EAST (=PDF=)
P. I. Konkin, N. T. Chebotarev, Dr. of Agr. Sci.;
A. A. Yudin, Cand. Econ. Sci.,
FSBSI Scientific and Research Institute of Agriculture of the Republic of Komi
27, Rucheynaya St., Syktyvkar, 167023, Russia
A. V. Oblizov, Cand. Econ. Sci.,
SEI HE Komi Republican Academy of State Service and Administration
11, Kommunisticheskaya St., Syktyvkar, 167982, Russia
In 2014-2017, the comparative test of two potato varieties (the Zyryanets, the Pamyati Polevoi) and two potato hybrids (number 1603-7 and 1657-7) was carried out under the conditions of the Republic of Komi. The trial field contained sod-podzolic, light loamy, well-cultivated soil with the following agrochemical parameters: humus – 3.0-4.1%; pHkcl – 5.7-6.6; P2O5 – 500-595 mg/kg of soil, K2O – 130-170 mg/kg of soil. Weather conditions of 2014-2017 vegetative periods (planting and harvesting) were as follows: the average air temperature in 2016 amounted to 16.3°C, in 2014 – 13.7°C, in 2015 – 14°C and in 2017 – 12.9°C (the lowest temperature for the research years) at an average multi-annual rate of 13.1 °C. The amount of precipitation in four research years was higher than the average multi-annual rate: in 2014 – 327.7 mm; in 2015 – 282.7 mm; in 2016 – 385.6 mm and in 2017 – 318.3 mm at a normal rate of 252.0 mm. On average over the four years, the yield capacity of potato tubers on sod-podzolic well-cultivated soil by 60-65 day from the planting date was equal to 5.1 and 11.4 t/ha, while the yield capacity of control varieties such as the Udacha and the Nevsky was 7.6 and 9.9 t/ha. The highest yield capacity equal to 11.4 t/ha was obtained by 60-65 day in the hybrid number 1657-7 and it exceeded the control varieties by 50.0% and 15.1%, respectively. The average yield capacity of varieties and hybrids on the 90-95 day from the planting date amounted to 26.2-38.0 t/ha. The highest yield of potato tubers equal 38.0 t/ha was obtained in the hybrid 1657-7, a fairly high yield of potato was in the Zyryanets variety – 33.9 t/ha and the Pamyati Polevoi – 32.0 t/ha. The following potato varieties were highlighted by the content of dry matter in tubers: the Zyryanets – 21.7 % and the Pamyati Polevoi – 23.4%, meanwhile, in the control potato varieties it was equal to 20.8 and 21.3%. The following amount of starch was observed in tubers of potato varieties: the Zyryanets – 15.5%, the Pamyati Polevoi – 15.6%, the Udacha and the Nevsky control varieties – 14.5%. The best performance of vitamin C content equal to 12.5% was showed by the hybrid 1657-7. The Zyryanets and the Pamyati Polevoi consisted 10.0 and 10.8% of vitamin C, in control varieties its content was 9.5% in the Udacha and 14.0% in the Nevsky.
Key words: potato, hybrid, variety, yield capacity, yield structure, dry matter, starch, vitamin C, late blight, nematode, adapted conditions.
THE INFLUENCE OF SOWING DATES AND RATES ON THE YIELD CAPACITY OF SPRING RAPE VARIETIES IN THE MIDDLE PREDURALIE (=PDF=)
R. N. Kurbangaliev, PhD student;
A. S. Bogatyreva, Cand. Agr. Sci.;
E. D. Akmanaev, Cand. Agr. Sci., Assoc. Professor,
FSBEI HE Perm SATU
23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm, 614990, Russia
The paper represents the research results aimed to develop spring rape seeding methods in the middle Preduralie. In 2015-2017 three-factor field trial investigating spring rape varieties, sowing rates and seeding dates was laid out on the training and research trial field of FSBEI HE Perm SATU. The research was conducted on the typical for the middle Preduralie fine sod-podzolic, heavy loamy soil. The response to changes in seeding date and sowing rate was determined for seeds of two spring rape objects: the Ratnik variety and the Smilla hybrid. Field trial and laboratory analyses were used as research methods. The data was represented as an average estimate for the three research years. The Smilla hybrid of non-domestic selection had the highest productivity with 1.33 t/ha of oilseeds that was by 0.35 t/ha higher than the performance of the Ratnik domestic variety. The highest yield was achieved whilst seeding the spring rape on possible early date with sowing rate of 1.5 and 2.0 million of germinable seeds per hectare. This regularity was common for agrophytocenosis of both varieties. The higher productivity of the Smilla hybrid relates to the higher number of plants/m2 at harvest time. As soon as possible seeding date is preferential by its yield capacity due to the maximum density of productive crops and productivity of one plant. The higher productivity of one plant on possible early seeding date is caused by the number of pods per one plant. The highest number of plant pods and seeds in a pod was observed at low sowing rates for both varieties. The weight of 1000 seeds is nearly unchangeable at varieties, sowing dates and rates of spring rape. The optimal seeding method for the Ratnik domestic variety as well as the Smilla non-domestic hybrid is possible early seeding date with sowing rate of 1.5 million germinable seeds per hectare.
Key words: spring rape, variety, sowing rate, seeding date, yield capacity, yield structure.
INFLUENCE OF AGRO-METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS ON YIELD CAPACITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF OATS (=PDF=)
V. E. Kardashina, Senior Research Professor;L. S. Nikolaeva, Senior Research Professor,
Ural Scientific and Research Institute of Agriculture, “Krasnoufimsky Selection Centre”
8, Selektsionnaya St., Krasnoufimsk, Sverdlovskaya Oblast, 623300, Russia
The following grain-mown varieties of oat demanded in agricultural production of the middle Ural were selected in Krasnoufimsk Selection Center: the Universal-1, the Pamyati Bulavina and the Uralets. The article deals with the response of grain-forage varieties of the Ural selection to different meteorological factors of 2010-2012 and 2014-2016 vegetative periods. Competitive test of oats was carried out in a selection crop rotation on the dark gray forest soil with light to heavy loamy particle-size distribution. In research years, the hydrothermal coefficient changed from 0.42 to 2.72. According to the quantity of precipitation, plants of oats in the middle Ural came into tasseling at the sum of positive air temperatures equal to 590-635°C, into wax-ripeness at 1150-1450°C. Higher level of moisture in soil and air requires more thermal energy for evaporation of excessive moisture. The insufficient quantity of precipitation in 2010, 2012 and 2016 led to reduction of the vegetative period up to 66-69 days, the yield capacity of plant top mass was 19.9-26.6 t/ha, whereas in wet conditions of 2011, 2014 and 2015 – 32.6-49.8 t/ha. The yield capacity of grain in drought conditions of 2010 and 2012 was 3.03-3.28 t/ha, in favorable conditions of 2011 and 2014 – 5.16-6.06 t/ha. Except precipitation, average daily air temperature during the vegetative period also has an impact on grain performance.
Key words: oats, variety, vegetative period, atmospheric precipitation, performance, sum of positive air temperatures.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PEA VARIETIES FOR MULTI-PURPOSE USE (=PDF=)
L. I. Likhacheva, Senior Research Professor;
E. G. Kozionova, Research Professor;
V. S. Gimaletdinova, Research Professor,
FSBSI Ural Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture, Krasnoufimsk Breeding Center
8, Selekcionnaya St., Krasnoufimsk, Sverdlovskaya Oblast, 623300, Russia
In 2016-2017, the research of pea varieties for multi-purpose use aimed to identify the best varieties was carried out in northern forest-steppe of the Pre-Urals under the conditions of Sverdlovskaya Oblast. Two nurseries were laid out in four-time frequency in order to determine the yield capacity of plant green material (declared area of plot – 9 m2) and the grain productivity (19 m2). The trials were laid out by the seeding machine SSFK-7 at seeding rate 1.5 million of germinated seeds/ha. Pea harvesting for green material was conducted in the stage of fully filling of pea pod. Harvesting for grain was carried out by the combine harvester “Hégé 125” in the stage of complete grain ripeness. Recording of yield capacity was kept due to variety testing method for agricultural crops. Observation and research were based on standard procedures and SUST (stands for the State Union Standard, Rus.: GOST). Protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method in analytical laboratory of Ural Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture (conversion coefficient of total nitrogen to protein – 6.25). Pea forms with long stem, leaves (the Marathon, number 12-144) and with long stem, tendrils (numbers 09-310, 09-383, 11-440) were taken for the research. The Krasnoufimsky 93 variety was accepted as a standard. The research results established that all varieties were highlighted by green material, dry matter and protein content in green material in comparison with the Krasnoufimsky 93 standard variety. The greatest yield capacity of grain and green material in two years of research was performed by the Marathon variety and number 12-144.
Key words: pea, variety, protein, yield capacity, plant height, resistance to lodging, vegetative period, weight of 1000 seeds.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MINERAL FERTILIZERS AND STRAW APPLICATION TO SPRING WHEAT IN CROP ROTATION (=PDF=)
M. I. Pinaeva, PhD student; L. A. Mikhailova,Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor;
Yu. A. Akmanaeva, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor,
FSBEI HE Perm SATU
23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm, 614990, Russia
The article deals with the short-term field trials aimed to research the influence of mineral fertilizers and straw on the yield capacity and some parameters of spring wheat. The investigation was carried out on fine sod-podzolic, middle loamy soil on the training and research experimental field of Perm State Agro-Technological University in 2015-2017. Trial design included: Factor A – fallow type:
A1 – green-manure fallow; A2 – naked fallow; Factor B — method of fertilizer dose calculation; B1 – without fertilizers; B2 – currently applied dose of fertilizers in agriculture of Perm Krai (N30P30K30 kg/ha); B3 – average recommended doses (N60P60K60 kg/ha); B4 – dose for planning yield capacity (3 t/ha – N105P36K105 t/ha); B5 – dose for additional yield (2 t/ha N70P24K70); Factor C – straw application; C1 – with straw; C2 – without straw. It was established that seeding the spring wheat with naked fallow significantly increased the performance of this crop, on average, the additional yield over the three years was 0.12 t/ha when NCP = 0.12 t/ha. On average over the three years, application of fertilizers ensured the yield capacity of spring wheat grain equal to 2.50-2.76 t/ha. The maximum additional yield was achieved when fertilizers were applied in average recommended doses (НСР05 = 0.11 t/ha). High doses of fertilizers (N105 kg/ha) led to lodging and harvesting loss in the variants for planning yield. Application of straw as an organic fertilizer had a significant impact on the yield capacity of spring wheat. On average over the three years, the additional yield gained by this method was equal to 0.16 t/ha (НСР05 = 0.08 t/ha).
Key words: spring wheat, naked fallow, green-manure fallow, sod-podzolic, middle loamy soil, doses of mineral fertilizers, straw, yield capacity.
OPTIMIZATION OF NITROGEN AND POTASSIUM FERTILIZERS APPLICATION ON SOILS WITH HIGH CONTENT OF PHOSPHORUS (=PDF=)
V. I. Titova, Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor,
Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy
97, Pr. Gagarina, Nizhny Novgorod, 603137, Russia
Being one of the environmental problems in recent years, the phosphatization of land appears on agricultural lands as soil overphosphating, which means that the content of mobile phosphorus compounds in them is much higher than the optimal level. A sharp increase of mobile phosphorus content in soil leads to a disbalance of biogenic elements, which adversely affects the nutrition of plants and increases ecological tension in agroecosystem. The paper deals with the results of three pot experiments laid out on light gray forest soil with a very high content of mobile phosphorus compounds, which have been modeled by creating of different phosphate grounds. The aim of experiment was to determine the dose of potassium and nitrogen recommended for soils with P2O5 content of 300, 1300 and 2200 mg/kg in order to provide an optimum power ratio of the root nutrition elements in cultivation of barley for grain, corn and rape for green mass. The research was carried out on the cultivation area of Agrochemistry and Agroecology Department at Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy in Mitcherlick’s pots of 5 kg of soil with four times frequency. It was established that an increase of nitrogen and potassium doses on the ground with a minimum phosphate content equal to 300 mg/kg has a positive effect on the growth (increase in plant height and head length) and yield of barley, thereby ensuring an increase of grain proportion in the total top mass. Average doses of nitrogen and potassium (0.15 g of active ingredient per 1 kg of soil) were the most effective on the phosphate ground equal to 1300 mg / kg, and the minimal of studied nitrogen and potassium doses (not higher than 0.3 g/kg for each element) — on the ground with the highest phosphate content equal to 2,200 mg/k. The phosphorus content in barley products was increased by additional application of nitrogen and potassium in soil at the ground content of mobile phosphates of 300 and 1300 mg/kg, but it was not changed at the maximum phosphate ground (P-2200).
Key words: mobile compounds of phosphorus, phosphate ground, yield capacity, barley, corn, rape, plant height, phosphorus content in plants.
THE APPLICATION OF MINERAL FERTILIZERS AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS TO SPRING WHEAT ON SOD-PODZOLIC SOIL IN PERM KRAI (=PDF=)
D. S. Fomin, Cand. Agr. Sci.,
FSBEI HE Perm SATU
23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm, 614990, Russia;
V. R. Yamaltdinova, Cand. Agr. Sci.; L. V. Bessonova, Senior Research Professor;
R. I. Vyatkina, Senior Research Professor,
Perm Scientific and Research Institute of Agriculture
12, Kultury St., Lobanovo, Perm Krai, 614532, Russia
The paper presents the research results of joint application effect of mineral fertilizers and microbiological preparations on spring wheat yield, protein content in the grain and fertilizers recoupment. The research was carried out in 2011-2015 on sod-podzolic, heavy loamy soil on the trial field of Perm Scientific and Research Institute of Agriculture. Before laying out the trial, agrochemical parameters of plough layer were equal to the following: pH KCl – 4.8-5.1, P2O5 – 262 mg/100 kg of soil, K2O – 150 mg/kg of soil, humus – 1.8-2.1%. Two-factor experiment was made out according to the scheme: Factor A – ground of fertilizers: A1 — without fertilizers; A2 – N30P60K60; A3 – N60P60K60; Factor В – microbiological preparations: В1 –without preparations, В2 – Flavobacterin, В3 – Bioplant-K. Mineral fertilizers were applied in spring before the pre-plant cultivation. Agrotechnique in the experiment complies with the scientific system of agriculture recommended for Perm Krai. On average over the five years, seed inoculation with microbiological preparations provided a tendency to increase spring wheat yield up to 2.98 t/ha of grain during the application of N60P60K60. It was established that the application of N30P60K60 ensured the highest recoupment of 1 kg of fertilizers active ingredient by the additional yield equal to 3.0-3.9 kg of grain. Additional use of biopreparations together with N30P60K60 provided a reliable increase of protein and nitrogen in the grain. The highest utilization rates of nitrogen fertilizers (65-84%) were obtained when complete mineral fertilizers in moderate doses (N30P60K60) were applied.
Key words: spring wheat, microbiological preparation, mineral fertilizers, yield, recoupment.
THE INFLUENCE OF EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISM (EM) TECHNOLOGY ON THE YIELD CAPACITY OF POTATO (=PDF=)
A. V. Chernov, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor
V. L. Dimitriev, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor
S. V. Larkin,Cand. Tech. Sci., Associate Professor
Chuvash State Agricultural Academy
29, Karla Marksa St., Cheboksary, 428003, Russia
In 2015-2016 a field experiment was carried out to study the influence of Baikal EM-1 preparation on the yield capacity of potato under the conditions of the Chuvash Republic. Improvement of agrochemical parameters of grey forest soils during the treatment with aqueous solution of Baikal EM-1 indicates the effectiveness of preparation. The Udacha released variety of potato was chosen to investigate the applicability of Baikal EM-1 preparation in the cultivation of potato on gray forest soils. Manure was applied in the dose of 60 t/ha before the autumn deep tillage. Experiment plots were treated with the solution of Baikal EM-1 at a rate of 300 l/ha with 0.001-0.005% concentration. The size of one plot was 25 m2. Treatment of plots was carried out in four time frequency. The experimental design was the following: 1. Control variant, 2. Treatment with aqueous solution of Baikal EM-1 preparation at a concentration of 0.001%, 3. Treatment with aqueous solution of Baikal EM-1 preparation at a concentration of 0.002%, 4. Treatment with aqueous solution of Baikal EM-1 preparation at a concentration of 0.003%, 5. Treatment with aqueous solution of Baikal EM-1 preparation at a concentration of 0.004%, 6. Treatment with aqueous solution of Baikal EM-1 preparation at a concentration of 0.005%. The aim of research was to study the influence of microorganisms on the yield capacity of potato and to establish the effectiveness of Baikal EM-1 preparation. The research results clearly indicate that potato plants on plots with preparation application were taller and had strong stems. The great number of stems per potato plant as well as its wider and longer leaves reflect the emergence of higher photosynthetic potential in the variants with application of Baikal EM-1. Treated plants had no delay in development, their height and more powerful top contributed to the formation of higher tubers yield than in the control variant. The highest yield capacity of potato tubers was observed in the variants with Baikal EM-1 application of 0.002% and 0.005% concentration. The higher yield capacity on the plots with preparation application caused by increase in the number of tubers and their greater mass per each plant.
Key words: potato, Baikal EM-1 preparation, concentration of treatment solution, height of plant, mass of leaves, yield capacity.
COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF NEW AND TRADITIONAL PREPARATIONS OF FUNGI-TOXIC ACTION ON ROOT ROT AND YIELD CAPACITY OF OAT AND BARLEY IN THE PREDURALIE (=PDF=)
S. V. Chirkov, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor; I. N. Medvedeva,Cand. Agr. Sci., Professor,
FSBEI HE Perm SATU
23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm, 614990, Russia
The article presents the information based on experimental data analysis of 2011-2013 research about the application of nitrogen containing substances synthesized by scientists of General Chemistry Department at the Perm SATU. These substances were applied as a growth regulator that increase the yield capacity and stimulate the resistance to fungus diseases of spring cereal crops in the Preduralie. The research was carried out on oat cultivated on sod-podzolic, heavy loamy soil. It was established that new preparations such as “Alkamonium DSU, PS” and “Alkamonium BTTM, VR” should be applied by disinfection or mixed method — disinfection and spraying. Their effectiveness does not concede an authorized common fungicide “Benomyl 500 SP”. Being applied to barley, a new preparation of fungi-toxic action “Alkamonium OS-2, PS” performed a high effectiveness for spread and progressing inhibition of root rot of Helminthosporium type; this led to increase in the yield capacity of barley under disinfection and spraying mixed methods.
Key words; barley, oat, root rot, fingicide, growth regulator, yield capacity, disinfection, spraying, disease spread and progressing.
VETERINARY AND ZOOTECHNY
FODDER SUPPLEMENTS OF SORPTION ACTION IN CHICKEN-BROILER RATIONS (=PDF=)
D. M. Galiev, PhD student,
Ural State University of Agriculture
42, Karla Libknekhta, Ekaterinburg, 620075, Russia
The paper presents the results of two experiments of inclusion the Karbitox and BSh fodder supplements with sorption properties according to various regimens. Both experiments were conducted at “Sredne-Uralskaya” poultry plant in Sverdlovskaya Oblast according to the similar methods. The control group did not receive fodder supplement. In the first experimental group, the dosage of fodder supplement was constant during the entire period of introduction and conformed to the recommendations of manufacturers. In the experimental groups 2 and 3, the dosage of fodder supplement gradually decreased to the end of grow-out period. The results of the first experiment showed that the European Production Efficiency Factor (EPEF) in the experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 was higher than in the control group by 3, 15 and 16 units, respectively. In the second experiment, the poultry of the experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 exceeded EPEF in the control group by 23.8, 21.8 and 22.4 units, respectively. According to the results of two experiments, it can be concluded that the regimens of the Karbitox and BSh enterosorbents with gradually reduction of fodder supplement dosage were equal or even more advantageous than the regimens with the same level of preparation dosage during the entire grow-out period. At the same time, more efficient consumption of fodder supplements was achieved.
Key words: chicken-broilers, enterosorbents, productivity, European Production Efficiency Factor, economic efficiency.
INNOVATIVE CALCIUM CONTAINING SUPPLEMENT IN COW RATION AND ITS INFLUENCE ON DIGESTION AND NUTRIENT ABSORPTION (=PDF=)
E. M. Kislyakova, Cand. Agr. Sci., Professor;
S. L. Vorobiova, Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor,
FSBEI HE Izhevsk SAA
11, Studencheskaya St., Izhevsk, 426069, Russia
Calcium-MAG is a nanodispersed nanostructured amorphous form of calcium salt of gluconic acid with tens to hundreds nanometers dispersion and no more than 500 nm of agglomerate sizes. For the first time, this form was obtained by scientists of Physical and Technical Institute of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Izhevsk. The research of comparative influence of various physical forms of calcium gluconate on digestibility and ration nutrient absorption in cows was carried out in education and research farm of Izhevsk SAA in the Udmurt Republic. Three heifer groups of the Black-and-White breed were formed by the method of similar groups for scientific and economic experiment. Animals of all groups received the basic ration taken in the farm. For three weeks before the planned calving and during the month after, mixed fodder containing Calcium-MAG (the first group) and calcium gluconate (the second group) equal to 0.08% of ration dry matter was applied to the diet of animals in experimental groups. While the addition of investigated supplements into the ration, exchange experiments were carried out on first-calf cows according to the generally accepted method of Tomme M.F. (1970). Calcium gluconate of various forms had a positive effect on digestibility and ration nutrient absorption. In this, nanodispersed form of calcium gluconate performed a significant advantage. Calcium-MAG showed a positive effect on digestibility of ration organic matter by 3.5% (P≥0.95), fiber by 4.83% (P≥0.95) in comparison with the animals of control group. The digestibility coefficient of fat significantly increased by 14.86% (P≥0.99). In comparison with the animals of control group, the decrease in negative nitrogen balance by 5.56 g (P≥0.95) and balance of calcium by 5.07 (P≥ 0.999) was observed in first-calf cows receiving Calcium-MAG. The application of innovative form of calcium gluconate in cows diet is physiologically justified.
Key words: first-calf cows, diet, calcium gluconate, physical form, digestibility, balance.
EVALUATION OF MICROBIAL LANDSCAPE OF THE INTESTINE IN RABBITS (=PDF=)
I. A. Kudrevatykh, PhD student;
N. N. Shumilina, Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor,
Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology – MVA named after K. I. Skryabin
23, Akademika Skryabina St., Moscow, 109472, Russia
The investigation of microbial landscape of the cecum and rectum was carried out on clinically healthy rabbits of Soviet Chinchilla breed at the age of 2 to 60 days in the «Prikamie» rabbit farm of Perm Krai. General sample from rectum and cecum in rabbits was taken after their slaughtering at the age of 2, 7, 14, 21, 30, 60 days, 5 heads from each age group. In the course of research, it was determined that the content of Lactobacillus on the 21st day after the birth was equal to 1×101 CFU/g. At the beginning of research, the average number of colony-forming units of Bifidobacterium per 1 g of faeces was equal to 1×103 and 1×101 CFU/g, by the 14th day of life it increased up to 1×107 and 1×103 CFU/g. Gram-positive spore-forming aerobic bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus — Bacillus Subtilis were observed in all samples of faeces taken from rectum. From 30 to 60 days, the number of Lactobacillus increased up to 1×105 CFU/g. Colonies of E. coli were within the acceptable range. Opportunistic pathogenic bacteria as well as non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria and fungus of the genus Candida were not found in rabbits at the age of 2 to 60 days. The obtained data on dynamics of age-related changes in the microbial landscape of rabbit large intestine will serve as a useful source of information for the diagnosis of digestive disorders of rabbits in the nesting period.
Key word: rabbits, Soviet Chinchilla breed, colon, cecum, rectum, microflora.
EXTERNAL CONFORMATION TRAITS AND MILK PRODUCTION OF HOLSTEINIZED COWS OF KHOLMOGORSKY BREED WITHIN DIFFERENT GENERATIONS (=PDF=)
E. N. Martynova, Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor;
Yu. V. Isupova, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor,
FSBEI HE Izhevsk SAA
11, Studencheskaya St., Izhevsk, 426069, Russia
The paper deals with the research of external conformation traits and milk production within different generations of Kholmogorsky cows improved by Holstein breed under the conditions of the Udmurt Republic. According to the year of birth, all animals were divided into four generations: 1st — born before 2000, 2nd — born from 2000 to 2004, 3rd — born from 2005 to 2009, 4th — born from 2010 to 2012. External conformation of animals was evaluated due to the seven basic measurements: height at withers, chest depth, chest width, width at hook bones, slanting body length, chest girth, pastern girth. It is established that linear measurements of cows within different generations have certain differences. Reduction of chest depth by 2.63 cm from the first generation to the fourth is observed in cows of all ages. Full-grown cows of the 4th generation also exceeded their herdmates in the following measurements: height at withers by 7.03 cm more than the herdmates of the 1st and 2nd generations and by 2.81 cm than the 3rd generation, the chest width by 0.12-2.27 cm, slanting body length by 1.27-6.34 cm. The circumference of chest behind the shoulder blades of the 4th generation cows was by 5.37-8.01 less cm than herdmates. The pastern girth in the 4th generation of cows was by 0.41 cm more than in the 3rd generation and by 0.37-0.45 cm less than in the 1st and 2nd generations. When comparing milk production in cows of different generations, it is clear that the cows of the 4th generation have the highest milk production and live weight.
Key words: external conformation, stature measurements, generation, cows of Kholmogorsky breed, milk production, live weight.
THE INFLUENCE OF FEED FACTOR ON CHICKEN-BROILERS PERFORMANCE (=PDF=)
A. A. Ovchinnikov, Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor;
L. Yu. Ovchinnikova, Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor,
FSBEI HE South Ural State Agrarian University
13, Gagarina St., Troitsk, Chelyabinskaya Oblast, 457100, Russia
Mycotoxins affect up to 70 percent and more of all prepared grain fodders. The only radical method for reducing the pathogenic burden on a living organism is the application of fodder supplements of sorption action. The aim of research was to compare broilers performance of the Iza-15 cross during the application of dietary supplements Elitox in a dose of 0.13% and Probitox equal to 0.10% of fodder weight. An experimental part of research was carried out at poultry plant in Chelyabinskaya Oblast. When chicken-broilers were raised on complete mixed fodder, Elitox increased a total and daily average gain of broiler live weight by 5.3%, Probitox by 6.5%. In comparison with the control group, the safety of poultry stock increased by 4.0% in both experimental groups. The largest anabolic processes of metabolism in poultry were observed with the application of Probitox and characterized by an increase in hemoglobin in blood, total protein and lipids, beta-lipoproteins and a decrease in urea level. Elitox in poultry ration increased the slaughter carcass yield of broilers by 1.1%, Probitox – by 1.42%. In carcass of chicken-broilers which received Elitox, the yield of edible parts in comparison with the control group was higher by 6.3%, with the addition of Probitox – by 10.6% due to muscle tissue (by 79.20 g and 94.8 g), skin with subcutaneous fat (by 13.4 g and by 17.0 g) and internal fat (by 4.40 g and 4.20 g). Fodder supplement Elitox allowed reducing feed costs per unit of live weight gain of broilers by 6.7-6.9%, with the application of Probitox – by 8.6-8.7%.
Key words: chicken-broilers, adsorbent fodder supplement, live weight, morpho-biochemical indicators of blood, meat productivity, feed costs.
AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN ARTERIES OF DIFFERENT STRUCTURES OF EYE IN CATS (=PDF=)
K. M. Pladistaya, PhD student;
N. A. Tatarnikova, Dr. Vet. Sci., Professor,
Perm State Agro-Technological University
23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm, 614990, Russia
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
In 2016-2018, macro and micro investigations of eyeballs and extraocular structures in cats aimed at the study of the age-related changes in arteries of different structures of eye were conducted within the Department of Infectious Diseases at the Perm SATU. Investigation material was selected in sixteen 8-20 year old cats after natural death or euthanasia. After removing, the eyeball became a subject of biometric investigation with the measurement of the organ size, the determination of its shape, color and consistency and presence of externally visible focal changes. The next step was the excision of material that involves taking an adequate for the investigation amount of tissue, different in structure and properties. The obtained slices were investigated in a light microscope Axioscop 40 with eyepiece x10, at magnifications of x5 lens; x40; x100. It is established that the eyeball and its surrounding tissues can be damaged by different effects on them including natural during the life of an animal. Blood supply of the eyeball is carried out by a whole complex of arterial and venous vessels that provides trophisity of intraocular and extraocular tissues. Blood vessels in the eye have their own peculiarities of histological structure which are various in extraocular tissues and blood vessels of retina, but interconnected in a single circulatory system. Muscle-type arteries are dominating in the eyeball structures. In investigating material, the walls of muscle and muscle-elastic type arteries thickened due to hypertrophy, edema, plasma impregnation, sclerosis of the muscular layer as well as increasing the nucleated areas of endothelial cells protruding into the vascular lumina.
Key words: cat, eye, age-related changes, histology, artery.
THE USE OF A FEED ADDITIVE «ANTIVIR» IN BROILER CHICKEN DIETS (=PDF=)
L. V. Sycheva, Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor,
FSBEI HE Perm SATU
23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm, 614990, Russia
The influence of feed additive “Antivir” on the growth of broiler chickens as well as slaughter qualities and chemical composition of flesh was studied in the conditions of the Joint stock company ”PRODO Poultry plant Permskaya”. The basic diet of the experimental group’s chickens was added with 1 kg/t of self-produced combined fodder that corresponds with the programme of breeding: start (0-10 days); growing (11-28 days);finish (28-42 days). The absolute increase in the experimental group was higher compared to the control by 4.44%, average daily gain weight chicks – by 4.53%. The mass of half-viscerated and visceratedcarcass was also higher in the experimental group compared to the control by 6.69 and 7.37%, respectively.In broiler meat of the experimental group, protein content was at 23.9%, that is higher by 1.8% than in the controlgroup; and fat content totaled 7.13%, higher than in the control group at 0.16%, mineral content was higher by 0.23% compared with the control group.When conducting experiment, wastes in both groups was insignificant, that resulted inpreservation of livestock within the 96-97%.To increase the absolute weight gain and meat quality of broilersit is appropriate to recommend the introduction of a feed additive «Antivir» into the ration composition in the amount of 1 kg/t fodder.
Key words: broiler chickens, feed additive, protein, fat, dry matter, calorific value.
THE IMPROVEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR SUNKEN WOOD COLLECTING IN THE COASTAL ZONE OF RESERVOIRS: ANALYSIS OF TECHNOLOGIES (=PDF=)
V. A. Ivanov, Dr. Tech. Sci., Professor; Yu. V. Mornova, PhD student,
FSBEI HE Bratsk State University
40, Makarenko St., Bratsk, 665709, Russia
The article is devoted to the pressing issue of exploitation of flooded, floating and underwater standing trees in water area of reservoirs. Theoretical study of a simplified technology for sunken wood collecting as well as a technology with the application of floating lifting devices for sunken wood was carried out in reservoir zone of hydroelectric power stations in Angara-Yenisei region. The importance of improving the technological processes of sunken wood collecting and wood transportation to the sites of its processing for sale is justified. It is established that represented technological schemes of clearing the coastal zone of reservoirs from flooded and floating wood, being based on hydromanipulating type equipment and a rope skidder installation, enable to use technical and technological resources in the most effective way and significantly increase the productivity of technological process of sunken wood collecting. Moreover, they allow to solve localization problems of water pollution sources through the involving an additional volume of forest resources in production, while saving from cutting thousands of forest hectares.
Key words: flooded wood, transportation, technique, technological process, reservoir, coastal zone, forest resources.
ASSESSMENT OF ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF CONIFEROUS PLANTS
IN THE URBANIZED TERRITORY (=PDF=)
A. V. Skok, Cand. Bio. Sci., Associate Professor,
Bryansk State Engineering and Technological University
3, Stanke-Dimitrova Prospekt, Bryansk, 241037, Russia
Coniferous plant species are sensitive even to insignificant air pollution. They are considered indicators of the ecological situation. Viability of pollen can serve as an indicator of pollution level of the territory where coniferous plantations grow. The objects of research were public gardens, parks and plantings of Bezhitsky district of Bryansk. Inventory procedures of plantings was carried out in the territories, the sanitary and aesthetic state of trees and shrubs was assessed. The viability of Blue Spruce pollen (Picea pungens Engelm) has been estimated depending on the contamination of tree growth areas. Six species of coniferous plants grow on the territory of public gardens, parks and green areas of Bezhitsky district: European Spruce (Picea excels Link.), Blue Spruce (Picea pungens Engelm), Scots Pine (Pinus silvestris L.), Eastern Arborvitae (Thuja occidental L.), Savin Juniper (Juniperus Sabina L.), European Larch (Larix decidua Mill.). The most widespread species is Thuja occidental L. – 47.19% of the total number of trees, then European Spruce (Picea excelsa Link.) – 24.43%, Blue Spruce (Picea pungens Engelm) – 14.52%, Pinus silvestris L. – 10.89%, Larix decidua Mill. – 1.98%, Juniperus sabina L. – 0.99%. The Juniperus sabina L. has a high aesthetic evaluation and it is highly resistant to urban environment. At the same time, Thuja occidentalis L possess low stability and aesthetic evaluation. The level of gas air pollution in Bryansk ranges from low to high. With the increase in technogenic pollution, there is a regular decrease in the amount of germinating pollen grains and an increase in the number of abnormality in the development of pollen tubes for Blue Spruce (Picea pungens Engelm).
Key words: coniferous species, industrial pollution, Picea pungens Engelm, pollen, abnormalities of pollen tubes.