AGRONOMY AND FORESTRY
INFLUENCE OF MINERAL FERTILIZERS ON SPRING WHEAT GRAIN YIELD CAPACITY
V. D. Abashev, Dr. Agr. Sci.; F. A. Popov, Cand. Agr. Sci.;
E. N. Noskova, Cand. Agr. Sci.; S. N. Zhuk,
North-East Agricultural Research Institute
166-a, Lenina St., Kirov 610007 Russia
Study on influence of increasing dozes (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 kg of acting matter) of full mineral fertilizer on productivity of different spring wheat varieties was conducted in six-field grain-grass crop rotation on long-term stationary of the North-East Agricultural Research Institute. Soil of experimental field is middle-clay sod-podzolic type formed on eluvium of Perm clay. Agrochemical parameters of arable layer before sowing were as follow: рНKCl – 4.8, content of Р2О5 – 46 mg/kg, К2О – 160 mg/kg of soil, humus – 1.5%. Mineral fertilizers were applied by hand in spring before pre-sowing cultivation. Ammonia nitrate, double super-phosphate, and potassium chloride were used as well. Productivity of the most part of varieties increased along with rise of dozes of mineral fertilizer up to N90P90K90 and in variety Svecha – up to N60P60K60. Input of higher dozes of NPK does not lead to increase in productivity. Maximal productivity of spring wheat in average for 18 years was 4.14 t/ha at application of full mineral fertilizer in doze 90 kg of acting matter, when productivity in control was 2.48 t/ha only. Recoupment of 1 kg of acting matter of entering fertilizers with grain of spring wheat was 3.6-8.0 kg in average for 18 years. The highest recoupment was in variant with minimal doze of N30P30K30 – 8.0 kg of grain. Each increase in doze of fertilizer led to lowering in recoupment with grain of spring wheat. In 1978-1980, variety Leningradka had maximal productivity 5.12 t/ha among all studied varieties at doze of fertilizer equal to N120P120K120. Productivity of spring wheat is governed mainly with use of nitric and phosphorus fertilizers, influence of potassium fertilizer was lower. At cultivation of spring wheat after clover, whole doze of fertilizer must be introduced in basic application before sowing. Apply of top-dressing with nitric fertilizer at flowering stage had no significant influence on productivity of studied varieties and content of protein and gluten in grain. Cultivation of spring wheat at application of full mineral fertilizer at doze 60 kg of acting matter per ha was the most effective economically.
Key words: sod-podzolic soil, mineral fertilizers, productivity of spring wheat, variety, recoupment of fertilizer with grain, economical effectiveness of fertilizers.
INFLUENCE OF ABIOTIC CONDITIONS ON THE YIELD OF SINGLE AND DOUBLE-CROP CLOVER MEADOW IN MIDDLE PREDURALIE
E. D. Akmanaev, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor
A. S. Bogatyreva, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor
Perm State Agricultural Academy
23 Petropavlovskaya St., Perm 614990 Russia
The results of examining of single- and double-crop species of clover meadow (Trifolium pratense) of the types of various ploidy of the varieties Permskymestny, Trio, Kudesnik at the state varieties sites of Permsky Krai during 2004-2006, 2009 years and the results of the research held at the experimental field for training and scientific research of FSBEI HE Perm State Agricultural Academy during 2008-2011 years had been under consideration. The varieties testing and the experiments were conducted on turf-podzol heavy clay loam soils widely spread in the Permsky Krai. These soils were characterized by the average cultivation. The experiments had been set up in accordance with the commonly accepted methods, agrotechnology in the experiments had been adopted to the zone system of agriculture. The agrometeorologic conditions at the variety testing and at the conducting the experiment strongly differed at periods during the particular years. The meteorological condition differences at these years allowed us to estimate the varieties having been tested according to their ecological plasticity and stability. The varieties being under consideration the Clover Meadow Permsky Mestny, Trio, Kudesnik created the similar yielding capacity. At sharp changing of the agroclimatic conditions the yield capacity of the varieties under consideration also differs therefore proving their low ecological stability. The weather conditions considerably influence the morphological and physiological indexes of plant development. The article is supplied with the comparative estimation of the level of yield capacity of perennial grasses grown at the state varieties sites, the Academy experimental field and at the agricultural organizations of Permsky Krai, that are the places with high and low level of farming. It has been established that the average yield capacity of the dry matter of perennial grasses in Permsky Krai is 2.9-3.5 times lower than at the state varieties sites of the region and of Perm State Agricultural Academy.
Key words: meadow clover, variety, abiotic conditions, variety testing, yield capacity, height of plants, vegetation period, winter resistance.
THE SELECTION OF THE UNIFORM MATURITY VARIETIES OF TOMATO
AND TOMATO LINES WITH THE HELP OF EVALUATING THE PRINCIPLE PHYSICAL MECHANICAL INDICATORS OF FRUITS
A. G. Babayev, Dr. Agr. Sci.,
Z. K. Alieva, PhD in Agr. Sci., Associate Professor,
Scientific Research Institution of Vegetable Growing,
Sovhoz №2, poselok Pirshagi, Baku 1098, Az1098 Azerbaijan Republic
V. A. Babayev, PhD in Agr. Sci., Professor,
National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan,
30, Istiglaliat St., Baku, AZ1001 Azerbaijan Republic
At the experimental stations of Azerbaijan Scientific Research Institution of Vegetable Growing since 1978 there had been estimated and studied more than 800 samples of varieties of tomatoes of native and foreign selection for their resistance to mechanical harvesting and the limited amount of harvesting concerning transplant and non-transplant tomato varieties. On a base of miscellaneous hybrids obtained there had been selected 11 new varieties and the lines of different ripening, their availability for one-time harvesting and the limited number of gathering. For the fruit of some varieties there had been studied the physical-mechanical properties, the limits of their variability in dependence on the agroecological conditions of growing, including their laying ability and that of transportation. Variety samples estimation according to physical-mechanical properties of the fruit had been carried out with the help of the laboratory and field devices IDP-500, OPT-10, PE-250 and PPU-500. The biochemical content of fruit (dry matter, sugar summerizings, general acidity, vitamin C) and their availability to different kinds of conservation. The varieties LEILA, IlKIN and ZAFAR had proved to be the best among the new strong-fruited tomato varieties at the estimation according to complex of household-biological properties. At estimating the newly studied tomato lines in the nursery of concourse testing according to the complex of Physical Mechanical Indicators there had been distinguished the samples of TL-708y1, T-78 HC, T-104-L-1, T- 261 and T- 252.
Key words: skin firmness of mature fruits, firmness of puncture, resistance to crush, firmness of skin and flesh of mature fruits.
MEASURES OF SANITATION OF STONE FRUITS CULTURES IN LVSRIA
V. A. Bgashev, Cand. Agr. Sci.,
A. V. Solonkin, Cand. Agr. Sci.,
O. A. Nikolskaya
LVSRIA – Branch of FSC of Agroecology of Russian Academy of Sciences
Village of Oblastnaia Station , Gorodishenski District, Volgogradskaya oblast 403013 Russia
The Lower-Volga Agricultural Research Institute is studying the spread of the most harmful viral pathogens on clones recommended and promising varieties of cherry, mazzard cherry and plum, rootstocks of these cultures and the intensity of the natural infectious background on basis of most visual pathogens on their clones. Experimental plantations are located in the light-brown soil zone, in the steppe landscape, particularly in irrigated areas. The observations were made with the methods of Cultivar fruit, berry, and nut crops. Virological studies were performed by plant indicators. After testing on Prunus tomentosa L. were identified clones of varieties and hybrids of plum — Amersi, Burbank, Blyubel, Warriors, Hungary’s Korneevskaya, Volgograd, Huck, Globe, Dream, Melon, Early Kabarda, Calypso, Columnar, Kuban Comet, Leader, Autumn souvenir, Record, Stanley, Tatiana, Tent, Yubileum, H-1707, H-1738, H-1788, and the stock VSV-1 what is available from most malicious viruses — PNPSV, PDV or dwarfism of plum pox virus quarantine and plums. To identify rapidly secondary viral infections, all clones contained grafted onto Pr. tomentosa. During testing on a stock VSL — 2, which is one of the indicators on PNPSV and PDV, clones of cherries were identified — Dubovochka, Toy, Korneevskaya, Lebedyanskaya, favorite, Melody, Morozovka, Miracle Cherry, Sharada, H-2516 and mazzard cherries – Alay, Alexandria, Amulet, Donetsk coal, Iput, Beauty Kiev, Large-fruited, Lesya, Rossoshanskaya gold, Epic, Julia, Yaroslavna, free from these viruses. Tested on viruses clones are of interest as starting material for research, breeding, horticulture and nursery. When there is a low intensity of natural infectious background for the studied viruses for 20 years of infection of healthy plums clones, the mazzard cherries have been identified.
Keywords: viral infections, VSL — 2, cherry, PNPSV, PDV, PPV, tracer method, nurseries, plum, mazzard cherry.
NECESSITY TO SPECIFY THE SOWING TIME OF WINTER RYE
S. L. Eliseev, Dr.Agr.Sci., Professor
T. S. Vershinina, Post-Graduate Student
Perm State Agricultural Academy
23 Petropavlovskaya St., Perm 614990 Russia
To determine optimal calendar, biological, and agrotechnical sowing time for winter rye, a field experiment with the variety Falenskaia 4 was conducted in the conditions of central districts of Permskii krai in 2013–2016. The experiment scheme included seven sowing dates since the 15th of August till the 2nd of September at a 3-day interval. Investigations were conducted in the years with contrast climatic conditions on sod-podzolic heavy loamy middle cultivated soil that is most wide spread in the Middle Preduralie. Grain yield, plants wintering, their tilling ability before wintering and heat supply during autumn vegetation period depending on the sowing time were studied. The investigations resulted in specifications of optimal calendar sowing dates for the crop in the region. The highest and the most sustainable grain yield capacity forms at sowing on 21st-24th of August. Based on crop’s biological features, indicator of sowing time of winter rye in the region is supply of plants with daily average air temperatures for the period sowing-end of vegetation 450–500 °С, which ensures formation of 3.1–3.3 tillers. Agrotechnically based sowing time for winter rye in the central districts of Permskii krai is sustainable transition daily average air temperature through 17 °С.
Key words: winter rye, sowing time, yield capacity, wintering, tilling capacity, average daily temperature, yield range.
EFFECT OF FOREST TYPE ON SUSTAINABILITY OF SPRUCE STANDS
L. A. Ivanchina, Post-Graduate Student
S. V. Zalesov, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor
Ural State Forestry University
37 Sibirskiy trakt, Yekaterinburg 620100 Russia
Conditions of growing effect on the area of spruce stands drying up in Bolchesosnovskii, Okhanskii, Ocherskii forest divisions of Permskii Krai were analyzed. Based on acts of nature investigations it was established that for 7 year period (2010-2016) spruce stands drying up has taken part in 280 sites. The drying up was observed in 7 forest types (green moss spruce stands, sour, lime, grass, simallzavine, green mess sour pine stands). As to the areas where spruce trees drying up was fixed, green moss spruce stands (45.35% of the area) and sour spruce (36.58% of the area) have the leading positions. Spruce stands in more productive forest types – lime spruce stands and small ravine forest stands appeared to by more stable as well as the ones growing in green moss and small ravine pine stands. The least stable is the planting of spruce wet, because these plantations account for 16.36% of the wooded area, while the proportion of square cells with shrunken spruce forest stands of this type forest amounted to 45.35%. The share of spruce forests linden forest type is 18.6% and the percentage of square areas with dried vegetation in this forest type does not exceed 4.08%. The stability of spruce stands in different forest types should be taken into account in silvicultural measures planning as well as in future forest stands composition forming.
Key words: Permskii krai, spruce stands, forest type, stability, drying up, forest type investigation.
PROMISING HYBRIDS OF POTATO ADAPTED FOR CULTIVATION
IN THE MIDDLE TAIGA ZONE OF EURO-NORTH-EAST
P. I. Konkin; N. T. Chebotarev, Dr. Agr. Sci.
A. A. Yudin, Cand. Econ. Sci.
Federal State Scientific Institution Research Institute of Agriculture of the Republic of Komi
27 Rucheinaia St., Syktyvkar 167023 Russia
A. V. Oblizov, Cand. Econ. Sci.
11 Kommunisticheskaya Str., Syktyvkar 167982 Russia
2014-2016 at the experimental field of the Federal State Scientific Institution Research Institute of Agriculture of the Republic of Komi, studies were conducted on the testing of four hybrids of potato: 1523-16, 1497-3, 1603-7, 1657-7 on sod-podzolic well-cultivated soil showed that the yield of potato tubers hybrids 60-65 days from planting time, in average over 3 years was 8.2 to 16.4 t/ha, while the yield of control varieties of potatoes (Luck and Nevsky) was 11.3-13.1 t/ha, the highest yield 60-65 day obtained from the hybrid 1657-7 to 16.4 t/ha and was higher than the control varieties of 45.1% and 25.1%, respectively. By 80-95 day from the date of planting, the average yield of hybrids of potatoes amounted to 26.2 40.9 per t/ha of tubers, which is 49.2% higher than variety Luck and 22.8% variety Nevsky, respectively. The dry matter content in potato tubers selected accessions 1497-3 – 23.6%, the content of starch also hybrid 1497-3 (15.8 per cent). In other hybrids and varieties these figures were: dry matter – 19.0-21.8%, starch – 12.6-13.6%. The gathering of starch per hectare was from hybrids and varieties: 1497-3 – 5.69 t, 1657-7 – 5.56 t, 1523-16 – of 5.53, 1603-7 to 3.63 t, Luck – of 3.66 t and Nevsky 4.90 t. The content of vitamin C was the best hybrid 1657-7 – 12.5 mg/% and a sort of Nevsky – 13.1 mg/%, in other varieties of amount of vitamin C was low (8.8-10.8 mg/%).
Key words: potato, hybrid, variety, yield, dry matter, starch, late blight.
INFLUENCE OF THE LIQUID COMPLEX FERTILIZER «LCF 11-37-0»
ON PRODUCTIVITY OF PEAS IN VEGETATIVE EXPERIMENT
V. I. Titova, Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor
M. K. Malysheva, student
Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy
Pr. Gagarina, 97, Nizhny Novgorod 603137 Russia
Under the conditions of a two-year of vegetative experiment we evaluated the effect of a liquid complex fertilizer (LCF 11: 37: 0) on the yield and quality of grain varieties of peas «Stabil» in Nizhnii Novgorod region in 2015-2016. The light gray forest soil is light loamy, low-humus, with a slightly acidic (2015) or close to neutral (2016) pH, has a mean or enhanced provision of mobile compounds of phosphorus and potassium. Fertilizer was added to the soil prior to seeding, at doses of phosphorus from 0.1 to 0.4 g / kg soil; the background fertilizer — NK dose of 0.1 and 0.2 g / kg, respectively. To evaluate the effectiveness of fertilizer we used indicators of the structure of the commodity crop yield and aboveground biomass of grain, grain protein content, fiber, fat and ash. Fertilizer demonstrated its high efficiency in the background compared to the absolute control. It was found that the addition of phosphorus in the composition of a liquid complex fertilizer to nitrogen and potash background is effective, helping to improve the yield of green vegetative mass and grains (15-40%), the amount of beans per plant (increase to 0.34 pc. /plant) and seed in a pod (increase to 0.31 pcs/bean) compared to N0,1K0,2 variant (background). Quality of grain peas from liquid complex fertilizer was improved by the increase in protein content (25-26%) while maintaining fat, fiber and ash in the range average statistical of published data. Maximum agronomic efficiency was obtained by introducing liquid complex fertilizers in the dose of phosphorus an equal 0.3 g / kg of soil (the ratio N: P: K in the fertilizer composition, which were used for the nitrogen-fixing culture was 1.0: 1.6: 1.1).
Keywords: liquid complex fertilizer, dose, vegetative experiment, light-gray forest soils, pea, yield, aboveground phytomass, beans, protein.
INCREASE OF EFFICIENCY OF PREPARATION OF FEED BY IMPROVING
THE DESIGN AND PROCESS OF FEEDING MACHINES
S. Iu. Bulatov, Cand. Tech. Sci., Associate Professor
Nizhniy Novgorod State Engineering-Economic University
22 а, Oktiabrskaia St., Kniaginino 606340 Russia
The investigations of feed preparing complex were conducted in the laboratories of the Viatskaia State Agricultural Academy and Nizhniy Novgorod State Engineering-Economic University in 2007-2016: operations of particular units and feed preparing machine in general were studied with the aim to improve design and technological process. Both common and developed by the authors methods were used for the study. In the study of operation of the feed preparing machine, some analytical dependences were obtained that enable determining the influence of certain parameters on its working characteristics: performance, energy consumption, feed quality. Conducted experimental investigations enabled stating theoretical studies and determining parameters of studied nodes of: 1) ejector (diffuser entry-hole diameter D=100 mm, diffuser angle ψ=30° and the area of entry circular annulus F=56 cm2, providing minimal losses of airflow pressure and increase of throughput capacity of the smasher DKR-3 from 1960 kg/h up to 2270 kg/h); 2) grain smasher with rotor-fan (rotation rate 3000 min-1; blade rounded radius 45 mm; diameter of screen holes 3 mm); 3) separator (perforation area of coarse case bottom 570 mm2, depth of coarse case 140 mm, separating screen radius 190 mm, length of holes of separating surface 26 mm); 4) root chopper (cutting angle of horizontal knives γ = 25º, number of horizontal knives N = 2 and cutting speed Vр = 12 м/с); 5) feed mixer-fermenter (mixing time for moist feed 5…8 min, specific energy consumption – 1.06 (KW∙h)/t, heterogeneity coefficient does not exceed 15 %, performance of mixer constitutes 10 t/h at rotation rate of mixing node 55 min-1; mixing time for dry feed 4.5…7 min, specific energy consumption – 1.36 (KW∙h)/t, heterogeneity coefficient – less than15 %, performance – 12 t/h at rotation rate of the mixing node 65 min-1). Obtained analytical dependences can be applied for creation of new constructive and technological schemes of compound feed machines elements (grain mashers, ejectors, pneumoseparators, and mixers) and can be used at design, research, and educational organizations.
Key words: animal husbandry, feeding, feed preparing machines, scientific value, practical significance, agricultural production, energy consumption.
ESTIMATION OF VIBRO-PNEUMATIC SEPARATOR WITH AN IMPROVED DESIGN BY THE SEEDS’ PURIFICATION FROM LIGHTWEIGHT IMPURITIES
V.D. Galkin, Dr. Tech. Sci., Professor; A.A. Khavyev, Cand. Tech. Sci.;
V.A. Khandrikov, Cand. Tech. Sci.; K.A. Grubov, S.V. Galkin
Perm State Agricultural Academy
113 Geroev Khasana St., Perm 614025 Russia
At the Department of Farm Machines of the Perm State Agricultural Academy, the estimation of vibro-pneumatic separator with an improved design by the seeds’ purification from lightweight impurities is curried out. Different experimental research methods (laboratory, including the method of experimental planning, and industrial) are used by the achieving this goal. By the solution of a compromise task based on the experiments with the vibro-pneumatic separator with the vacuum chamber it is stated that at the tuning feed value Q=1000 kg/h the degree of impurities’ output is over 97 % while seed loss into waste comprises 7,5 %, at vibration amplitude A=0,015 m, longitudinal deck tilt β=6…7º, installation angle of deck edge α=22…26º, directional angle of vibrations ε=30º, and frequency of deck’s vibrations n=450…460 min-1. Industrial researches of vibro-pneumatic separator with the vacuum chamber showed that at the tuning feed value 1000 kg/h seeds’ output amounts to 90 % while degree of impurities output is 96,3 %. Under the given experimental conditions and machine parameters the content of weed seeds is within 0-3 p/kg, other crop seeds – 0-6 p/kg, unit weight of seeds – 798,4-799,65 g/dm3. Laboratory experiments of vibro-pneumatic separator with force-chamber gave the following results: the degree of wild oats output from the wheat seeds reaches 96% by the output of them at 79 %. Frequency of deck vibrations is 430-450 1/min at the amplitude 0,015 m, cross and longitudinal tilt, respectively, 0 and 5 degrees.
Key words: seeds, vibro-pneumatic fluidized layer, segments of wild radish, degree of impurities’ output, seeds’ loss.
TO THE METHOD OF ESTIMATION OF THE CURRENT TECHNICAL CONDITION OF AGRO-ENGINEERING SYSTEMS USING THE PRINCIPLE
V. S. Koshman, Cand. Eng. Sci., Associate Professor
Perm State Agricultural Academy, Perm, Russia,
23 Petropavlovskaya St., Perm 614990 Russia
The ensuring of uninterrupted operation of the technological and energy equipment which is involved and is planned to be involved belongs to one of the important tasks. At solving this problem the transition to the system of technical maintenance of the agro-engineering structures in their current condition is of a special interest. Monitoring the technical condition, the metal structures in particular, is made difficult by the low observability of the hidden processes of degradation of the technical condition of the exploited engineering systems. It is suggested to use electrical conductivity of metals and alloys that refers to their structural-sensitive physical properties as one of the diagnosed parameters. To facilitate the constructive realization of monitoring the technical condition of metal structures it is suggested to use the ratio (principle) of Wiedeman-Franz-Lorenz. The measuring of the electrical conductivity of metals is technically carried out easier than in the case of their thermal conductivity. There has been specified the dependence of the Lorentz Lo from the molar heat capacity c_ (rμ) metals and alloys in a recording of the type Lo=π^(2/3) kc_pμ/(e^2 N_A), where k is a Boltzmann constant, e is an electron charge, NA –a number of Avogadro. At room temperature cpμ=3kNA, that allows to come to the ratio Lo=3π2/3k2/e2, known from the quantum theory. These equations correspond to the known dependencies which are experimentally confirmed (by the other authors) in a wide temperature range for the particularly pure metals, and for the alloys. The necessity for the further research has been underlined.
Key words: metals, alloys, engineering design, the current technical condition, technical condition control, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, the Wiedemann-Franz-Lorentz principle, the Lorentz number.
INVESTIGATION OF THE STABILITY OF THE MIXTURE PRODUCED
IN THE INSTALLATION FOR PREPARATION OF MIXES WITH A PORTION
OF THE INTRODUCING COMPONENT
V. G. Mokhnatkin, Dr. Tech. Sci, Professor;
A. S. Filinkov, Cand. Tech. Sci., Associate Professor;
P. N. Solonshchikov, Cand. Tech. Sci., Associate Professor;
Vyatka State Agricultural Academy,
133 Oktyabrsky prospect, Kirov, Russia,
One of the main problems of the livestock industry is forage production and animal feeding. Development and implementation of high-tech devices for mixing, expanding their scope, increasing the reliability of their operation, lowering of power consumption and top-quality products is one of the main and priority tasks in the mechanization of livestock and for the industry as a whole. The article proposes a solution to the problem of fodder production through the introduction of new structural and technological solutions used in feed preparing machines. The paper describes proposed installation for the preparation of mixtures and investigations on the quality of the mixture when introducing portions of the components. For the quality and stability of the mixture we used indicators of stability to coalescence (complete separation of the environment into its component phases) TC, and full stability (before the appearance of any visually observable changes in the composition of the sample) of the vehicle. The hexagon to two factors was implemented. The first factor was the frequency of rotation n, and the second – time of mixing t. The homogeneity of the resulting dispersion was estimated according to Cochran’s criterion values were Gоп1=0.010 and Gоп2=0.866 at the number of degrees of freedom f1=2 and f2=7. And the adequacy of the equations was tested using the F-Fisher criterion, at the five percent significance level and the number of degrees of freedom f1=4 and f2=14 — calculated values of F-criterion Fрасч1=2,223 and Fрасч2=1,3. In the study dynamic viscosity was bodyactive μ=1,002 (N•s/m2)•10-3, while the most stable state while cooking is at speed n=1000 min-1, and time t=3min, the optimal values of indicators of quality of mix will be as follows: stability of coalescence TC=98 hours, complete stability TC=57 p
Key words: milk substitute, calves, costs, mixing, stability, factor, optimization, component, viscosity, rotation speed.
BOTANY AND SOIL SCIENCE
PHENOLOGICAL STUDIES OF TILIA CORDATA (MILL.) IN THE CITY OF PERM AND ITS SURROUNDINGS
N. L. Kolyasnikova, Dr.Bio.Sci., Professor
Iu. N. Vlasov, Master’s Degree Student
Perm State Agricultural Academy
23, Petropavlovskia St., Perm 614990 Russia
Effect of ecological factors on phonological phases of Tilia cordata (Mill.) was studied in Permskii krai in 2016. Material for studies was collected in May-September 2016 from model trees of Tilia cordata Mill. Two sample plots (SP) were laid: in the Park of Micro-District Lipovaia Gora (SP1) and on the left bank of the Sylva river, 30 km South-East from Perm (SP2). Height of model trees was on average 18-20 m, age 30-40 years (productivity class – 2). Monitoring the development of the vegetative organs of Tilia cordata Mill. was carried out with the separation into 7 phenological stages, of generative organs – 10 phenological stages. In the summer 2016, the growth and development of leaves of Tilia cordata Mill. in Perm and its surroundings was observed in the first-second decades of May, mass flowering in early July, mass fruiting – in early September. The level of variation in time of the occurrence of phenological stages of vegetative and generative cycles between trees of the same sample plot is almost al¬ways higher in linden in the urban areas. The timing of the phenological stages in urban environments has outpaced the development of linden in natural habitat conditions
for 7-15 days.
Key words: phenology, phenophases, monitoring, Tilia cordata Mill.
ON TO THE EXPERIENCE OF THE USAGE OF PLANT RESIDUES IN SOILS OF
NON-BLACK SOIL ZONE OF RUSSIA (REVIEW)
N .M. Mudryh, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor,
I. A. Samofalova, Cand. Agr. Sci., Associate Professor,
Perm State Agricultural Academy,
23, Petropavlovskaya, Perm 614990 Russia
E-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
In the current economic conditions the usage of organic and mineral fertilizers is being minimized. This policy of farming had led to such a level of content of organic matter in the soil that it shows its degradation and the low efficiency of fertilizers application for agricultural crops. The main sources of supplying the organic matter in soil are organic fertilizers and post-harvest residues. The article gives a brief survey of the experiment data on the usage of plant residues and their role in humus balance maintaining in turf-podzol soils at the Non-Black Soil Zone of Russia. The survey of native experience of the usage of the reaped-rooted residues at the Non-black Soil Zone for maintaining the soil fertility and for humus balance non-deficiency at turf-podzol soils had displayed that the data on the amount of the coming plant residues coming to the soil after harvesting are very different ( according to some authors’ data). This can be possibly explained, firstly, by the natural variability of the crops, secondly, by the different height of cutting the plants at harvesting, thirdly, by the various methods of determining the reaped-rooted residues. The many-year research has established that the leaders in accumulation of plant residues were the perennial grasses, therefore their introduction into crop rotation was to be of an urgent necessity so that it promoted the economical increase of organic matter coming into soil in a form of plant residues, that allowed (on the background of organic and mineral fertilizers to solve the problem of reproduction of the soil humus to its non-deficiency balance.
Key words: turf-podzol soils, organic matter, humus, fertility, reaped-rooted residues, agricultural crops, crop rotation.
THE USE OF CORMELS AS PRIMARY EXPLANTS OF MICROPROPAGATION OF GLADIOLUS L.
N. L. Shibanova, Cand. Bio. Sci., Associate Professor
M. A. Chertkova, Post-Graduate Student
T.V. Melnikova, Master’s Degree Student
Perm State National Research University
15 Bukireva St., Perm 614990 Russia
Research was conducted at the Microclonal Propagation Laboratory of the Botany and Plant Genetics Department and at the Botanical garden of the Perm State National Research University in 2014-2016. The article presents data on micropropagation of two species of the genus Gladiolus L.: Gl. murielae Kelway and Gl. × hybridus hort. (6 cultivars). It is found that for the sterilization of explants Gl. × hybridus it is better to use the 7% sodium hypochlorite solution (15-25 min) and then 96% ethanol (30 sec), for Gl. murielae preferred reverse order of use of sterilizing agents. Sterile culture was more than 87%, respectively. When adding auxin (β-indoleacetic acid 1 ml/l, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 1.5 ml/l) into the culture MS medium on cormels observed the formation of morphogenic callus, multiplication factor in this case amounted to 3.67±2.04 pcs / explant for Gl. murielae and 5.14±1.21 pcs / explant for Gl. × hybridus. Action cytokinins (6-benzylaminopurine 1.5 ml/l) traced to increase the number of seedlings compared with medium without hormone, reproduction rate was 1.80±0.41 pcs / explant and 2.00±0.27 pcs / explant, respectively. Plants were transferred from conditions in vitro to in vivo. Plant survival was 80-100%, significantly higher than individuals grown normally (33-36%). Plants grown from cormels in vitro blossomed in the second year. Usually, gladiolus from cormels blooms for the third or fourth year.
Key words: micropropagation, cormels, Gladiolus × hybridus hort., Gladiolus murielae Kelway.
VETERINARY AND ZOOTECHNY
USE OF BENTONITE IN DIETS OF WEANED PIGLETS
Z. V. Pskhatsiyeva, Cand. Agr. Sci., MANEB Correspondent Member
Gorskii State Agrarian University
37, Kirova St., Vladikavkaz 362000 Republic Northern Ossetia-Alania
In conditions of RSO-Alania it was studied the effect of bentonite clay from Zamanulskoe deposit on digestibility of nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus and carcass content of weaned piglets. Two groups of weaned piglets were formed by pair-analogue method 25 heads in each group with consideration to gender, live weight, and physiological state. In the experiment, the analogues of the control group were fed basic diet of the farm. Weaned piglets of the second group were fed bentonite additionally to the basic ration with the particles diameter depending on their age: at the first feeding stage (2 months) particles diameter was 4-6 mm, at the second stage (3 months) – 8-10 mm. It was established that piglets fed with bentonite had a tendency to increase of dry matter digestibility coefficient by 1.8 % in comparison to the coefficient in the first group. Dry matter digestibility was (Р≤0.05) by 2.3 % higher in the second group. As a consequence of the fact that the bentonite clay possesses adsorb features, crude protein digestibility coefficients increased (Р≤0.05) by 2.3 %, and nitrogen-free extractives – by 2.9 %, respectively, in comparison to the first group. The animals of the second group better digest protein, since the content of digestible nitrogen was by 3.4 % more compared with the piglets of the first group. Balance of calcium in the first group amounted 5.57 g or 41.13 %, in the second group – 5.92 g or 43.56%, by 0.35 г or by 2.13% higher than figures of the first group. Balance of phosphorus in the first group amounted 32.80 %, in the second – 36.24 %. Difference in the groups constituted
3.4 % for the benefit of the second group that influenced the growth intensity. Feeding with bentonite allowed decreasing the concentration of heavy metals in blood. Increase of nutrients digestibility coefficients in the experimental group was noticed, as well as better digestibility of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus, increase of slaughter output in weaned piglets in the experimental group compared to the control group by 1.8 %.
Key words: weaned piglets, bentonite clay, digestibility coefficients, heavy metals, lethal exit.
THE EFFECTS OF THE TYPE OF FEEDING ON THE DIGESTIBILITY
OF NUTRIENTS AND HORMONE STATUS IN DOGS
V. A. Sitnikov, Cand. Agr. Sci., Professor
Perm State Agricultural Academy
23, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm 614990 Russia
V. D. Belyaev, Lecturer
Institute of the FPS
135, Karpinskogo St., Perm 614012 Russia
In the situation of the small towns the working dogs (the males of German Shepherd Dog breed) had been fed both with dry ready-made commercially produced feed of the brand Royal Canin MAXI Adult GR 26 and with that made of natural products ( in the quantities determined by the order of administration . Both types of feeding had ensured the equal (according to the quantity of dry matter) animal daily need but had been different in volume due to the technology of the feed prepared. In the physiological experiment the dogs kept on a diet based on the feed made of natural products consumed the nutrients in a better way due to the higher energetic food value at 8,19% in comparison with the experimental group. During the research it has been established that the coefficients of digestibility of nutrient substances had been lower concerning the experimental group of dogs (fed with the ready-made feed) in comparison with the group of animals consuming that prepared of natural products at the following values: in raw protein – at 2,09%, in fat – at 1,98%, in crude fiber — at 1,9% (P < 0,05), in non-nitrous extractives – at 5,46%, in organic matter — at 4,23% and in dry matter in general – at 4,65 %. The morphological study of the semen of the male dogs of the experimental group revealed that the spermatozoa concentration in the semen was at 278.5 mln/ml, that had been at 99,50 % (P<0,01) lower in comparison with the control group, therefore/thus having more pathological forms of sperma. The testosterone concentration in the male dog’s blood exceeded the norm index of healthy animals at 25,47 % in the control group and at 31,05 % in the experimental one. Concerning the biochemical composition of blood, no clear/distinct/certain difference/distinctions in the indicators of the groups had been found/ revealed. There was established in the course of the experiment that the transfer of the animals from feed prepared of natural components to that of the ready-made dry feed had caused a deterioration of the quality of the sperm received from the male dogs and of their harmonic status as well.
Key words: dogs, feeds, feeding, nutritional value, digestibility, blood, sperm, hormones.
STATE OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN SERVICE DOGS UNDER EFFECT
OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE FOOD SUPPLEMENT
L. V. Sycheva, Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor,
O. Iu. Iunusova, Cand. Bio. Sci., Associate Professor,
Perm State Agricultural Academy,
23, Petropavlovskaia St., Perm 614990 Russia
R. V. Malchikov, Cand. Agr. Sci.,
Perm Institute of Federal Penal Correction Service of Russia,
125, Karpinskogo St., Perm 614012 Russia
For many years scientists from Russia and abroad are conducting research in the field of feeding dogs a complete dry food. Experiments on the use of prepared feeds show that often their quality is low and negatively affects the health of dogs. In veterinary medicine, feed dietary supplements of plant origin are widely used for feeding to improve digestion and absorption of nutrients, as well as to correct and normalize the metabolism. The composition of biologically active additives «Transversal» is composed of herbal ingredients: TRANS-resveratrol and quercetin, which prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases and their complications, as well as premature aging. We conducted a research on studying of influence of biologically active additive «Transferal» on morphological and biochemical composition of blood of dogs. It was established that the studied dietary supplement accelerates the metabolic processes in the organism of dogs. Thus, the number of red blood cells in dogs of the experimental group was higher compared to counterparts in the control group on or 25.9% (P<0.05). The level of hemoglobin in dogs of the experimental group tended to increase compared to counterparts in the control group by 11.34 g/l, or 6.7% (P<0.05). The level of monocytes in dogs of the experimental group was 5.00±0.25% (P<0.01), which is 1.67% higher than in the control group. At the end of the experiment the value of total protein in the whey of blood in dogs of the experimental group tended to increase compared to counterparts in the control group 6.54 g/l, or 9.4% (P<0.05). The blood sugar in dogs of the experimental group at the end of the experiment decreased compared to the control group and amounted to 3.41 mmol/l, thus, increased antioxidant function and improved functional status in dogs prone to excessive sugar in the blood.
Key words: feeding, biologically active additive «Transveral», service dogs, morphological blood indices, biochemical parameters of blood.
COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF PROBIOTICS «VITAFORT» AND «VETOM»
ON THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF WEANED PIGLETS
F. S. Khaziakhmetov, Dr. Agr. Sci., Professor
A. F. Khabirov, Cand. Bio. Sci., Associate Professor
R. H. Avzalov, Dr. Bio. Sci., Professor,
Bashkir State Agrarian University
34, 50-letiia Oktiabria St., Ufa 450001 Russia
E-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com.
In the context of the Republic of Bashkortostan in the period from 2012 to 2015 norms of feeding the probiotic «Vitafort» were studied in compare with economic control without probiotics and probiotic «Vetom». The study was conducted in order to determine the effect of probiotic «Vitafort» on the intensity of growth and development of piglets, their safety, and the use of nutrient digestibility of the diet substances, hematological and biochemical parameters of blood. The animals in the control and experimental groups were selected by the method of pair-analogues of weaned pigs grown under identical conditions and feeding. The diet of animals in the control and experimental groups was identical. The only difference was that the piglets after weaning in the experimental groups were fed the probiotic «Vitafort» in the morning before feeding for 5 days, followed by 7-day intervals. Probiotic was fed by the oral route. Duration of the experiment was 60 days. It was formed 5 groups: Group 1 – control-1 without probiotic, Group 2 – control -2 probiotic «Vetom» – 1.5 g / day / head,
3 group – experimental-1 with 0.05 ml of the probiotic «Vitafort», group 4 – experimental-2 with
0.5 ml of a probiotic «Vitafort» group 5 –experimental-3 – 1 ml probiotic «Vitafort». The daily dose of the probiotic feeding «Vitafort» is shown per 10 kg of live weight of pigs after weaning. The use of a probiotic «Vitafort» in rations of weaned pigs of Large White breed at a dose of 0.5 ml per 10 kg body weight contributed to an increase in average daily gain by 21.5% higher than in the normal control group (P <0.01) and by 12.4% than in the second control group with probiotic Vetom (P <0,05). Increase of digestibility (P <0.05) of crude protein (78.2 instead of 73.0% in the control) and the digestibility of nitrogen-free extractives (92.4 instead of 87.3% in the control) was revealed. Balance nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium were also the best in the fourth experimental group. The results of studies of the blood composition in showed that the studied parameters in all groups were within the physiological norms, but using probiotic «Vitafort» leads to an increase of indicators such as total protein, calcium, phosphorus, inorganic and reduced urea, compared with the first and second control groups (P <0.05).
Key words: pigs after weaning, growth and development, and probiotics “Vetom”, “Vitafort”, digestibility and nutrient digestibility, morphological and biochemical indices of blood.
RESEARCH OF MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS ARTIFICIALLY CONTAMINATED BY SALMONELLA SPP.
E. O. Chugunova, Cand. Vet. Sci., Associate Professor
N. A. Tatarnikova, Dr. Vet. Sci., Professor
Perm State Agricultural Academy
23 Petropavlovskaya St., Perm 614990 Russia
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, , email@example.com
The article presents a comparative analysis of the Salmonella isolation methods from meat and meat products. The aim of research was exploring the possibility of Salmonella isolated from meat and meat food products. The work was performed at the bacteriological department of the Perm Veterinary Diagnostic Center during 2014-2016. The material for the artificial contamination were strains of S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Gallinarum-Pullorum, S. Dublin, S. Choleraesuis, S. Infantis, S. Hamburg, S. Virchow, obtained from the State Organization «Scientific Centre for Expertise of Medical Products» of the Russian Ministry of Health and ones isolated from meat and egg products (n = 46). The test samples of meat products weighing 25 g contaminated by Salmonella suspension consist of 101 to 108 bacterial cell/cm3, homogenized and analyzed as an experienced and control (by GOST 31659-2012) methods. We used bacteriological method of research. During the investigation review, we consider the sensitivity of the methods and the rate of typical colonies formation, possibility of bacteriophages lysis, biochemical and serological properties of Salmonella, and time spent on research. Result of studies show that the developed method for isolating Salmonella exceeds the classical analogue. In particular, the sensitivity of the developed method is only 10 bacterial cells of Salmonella. After Salmonella spp. accumulation by self-constructed medium ones formed typical colonies into agar more quickly than when using standard nutrient broth. Thus, full analysis by our method takes 50 — 70 hours less depending on the number of viable Salmonella cells within the sample. It is important, that this method of Salmonella spp. isolating precludes false-negative results of analysis. This fact certainly contributes to the quality of food.
Key words: Salmonella spp., meat and meat products, sensitivity, typing, time.
ECONOMY AND ACCOUNTANCY
THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF CONSTRUCTING BUSINESS-PROCESSES
OF MANAGEMENT DECISIONS ON THE ORGANIZING OF THE EFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT OF HOME AGRO-INDUSTRY
L. Е. Krasilnikova, Cand. Econ.Sci., Associate Professor
Perm State Agricultural Academy
23 Petropavlovskaya St., Perm 614990 Russia
The theoretical aspects of the organizing of the effective development of the native agro-industrial complex in the conditions of the current economic uncertainty have been under consideration. The improvement of the mechanisms and implements of the agrarian activity management nowadays goes under the aegis of ideological innovations, the correlating influence of surroundings factors, mutually forming the preconditions for organizational renovation of the process of management. Re-considering of the scientific approaches and their practical transforming conditions the necessity for the improvement of the apparatus of the categories, marking the theoretical aspects of building-up of business processes of management decisions on organizing the effective development of the agro-industrial complex. On a basis of the research conducted (that is summarized in the article) the specified definitions of the categories “effective development” and “effective development of agro-industrial complex in conditions of current economic uncertainty” were added and introduced in the scientific surroundings. The unique quality of the author’s supplements to the agrarian economic theory is that reflecting the strategic objective-providing the public reproduction in the interests of today’s population and of the future one, these supplements consolidate the main forms of development (evolutional and transformational) and the directions of their realization. On the foundations of the theoretical research for formation of adaptive institutional surroundings for managing the agrarian production there had been based a necessity of introducing the process approach, that differs by the more complicated algorithm of actions than a traditional structural-functional one and the typology of business processes had been fulfilled. There had been formulated a thesis on the necessity of further development of the theory of the effective development of the agro-industrial complex in the direction of concreting the tasks of the institutional building-up on the basis of developing inner-branch and inter-branch interfering, stimulating the organs of management to the search of optimum structure and inner-system defragmentation of rights and responsibilities.
Keywords: agro-industrial complex, business processes, effective development, management decisions, inner-branch and inter-branch interference, institutional surroundings, optimal management structure.
MAJOR TRENDS OF IMPORT PHASE-OUT AND OF MODERNIZATION
IN DEVELOPMENT OF AGRO-PRODUCTS REGIONAL MARKET
N. A. Svetlakova, Dr. Econ. Sci., Professor
S. A. Svetlakova, Post-Graduate Student,
Perm State Agricultural Academy,
Lunacharskogo st., 3, Perm 614000 Russia
The article gives the consideration of the problem of import phase-out as a new economical phenomenon guaranteeing a substitution of providers of import provision by the Russian producers of goods (in conditions of agricultural production modernization). There had been made a sociological inquiry for estimating import phase-out in the conditions of sanctions economy. The author’s definition, the principles and the system of import phase-out have been given. The factors forming the dependence on the import and the import phase-out have been distinguished. There have been worked out and presented the principal directions of import phase-out of agroindustrial complex for Permsky Krai, these underlining the necessity for technical modernization of the branch, innovational machine-building creation, modernization the finance-credit system and innovation technologies. The current economic situation dictates the necessity of import phase-out at the market of agricultural technics so that the technical dependence may transform into a technological one. The import phase-out cannot be achieved without a synchronic and carrying out ahead development of the other branches of economy that tells us of a necessity for adopting a federal inter-branch program for import phase-out of agricultural product and provision, of production of resources providing the development of agro-industrial complex. At this the scientific providing must be the full-rights component of this program.
Keywords: import phase-out, self-providing of products, modernization, import products, Russian goods producers, economic efficiency, agro-provision market sanctions.
INFLUENCE OF THE FACTORS OF THE OUTER SURROUNDINGS ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION POTENTIAL REALIZATION
L. I. Tenkovskaya, Cand. Econ. Sci.
F. Z. Michurina, Dr. Geo. Sci., Professor
Perm State Agricultural Academy
23, Petropavlovskaya, Perm, 614990 Russia
The research is aimed at searching for optimum values of the level of the outer surroundings of agricultural producers of the three categories: agricultural organizations, farms, town farms. There has been displayed the theoretical-methodological approach, in terms of which the methodology of using an integral indicator of estimation of a potential of agriculture of a territory of well developed ( in the agricultural aspect) region has been carried out. On a statistic analyses base we proved that, having the optimum of outer terms(conditions) the producers of goods were able to increase gross production of agriculture considerably. However, the optimization of the outer surroundings of an agricultural branch is a complicated task. For solving the problem of its studying there has been applied a system of methods: 1. The usage of the results of the accomplished research, specifying on the presence of the influence of the certain outer factors on farming; 2. The author’s systematization of the knowledge about outer factors constituted in its classification with differing/separating to the groups of economic, political, social, technological, informational, ecologic, natural, law, military factors presented at the consistent/successive/gradual hierarchical levels of the global, national, regional and branch outer surroundings. 3.Conducting to the correlated form all the factorial elements, influencing the results of functioning of the agrarian sector, but having the different units of measurements, and the revealing the collective force of influencing all the levels of the outer surroundings on production at agricultural organizations, farms, town farms; 4. Determining the purpose-oriented levels of the factors of outer surroundings which maximize agricultural production on a basis of built equations of the developed equation of multiple regression. There has been presented the accounting statistics of the potential of the production volume of agricultural product at North-Caucasus Region.
Key words: factors of outer surroundings, global, national, regional, branch level, agricultural organizations, farms, town farms, production maximizing, integral indicators.
METHODICAL TOOLS TO ESTIMATE THE LEVEL OF CRIMINALITY
IN THE SPHERE OF FOREST INDUSTRY
G. V. Tolpishev, Post-Graduate Student; A. G. Svetlakov, Dr.Econ. Sci., Professor;
Perm State Agricultural Academy,
3 Lunacharskogo st., Perm, 614000 Russia
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Illegal logging which are being carried out in a great scale in Russia is not only one of the most important indicators of instability of the forest management but one of the main obstacles to its introduction as well. They lower the motivation of the owners of forests and the forestry employees for stable forest management. The problems of revealing and detecting the crimes in forest industry complex are under consideration in the paper. The statistic data reflecting the indicators of activity of forestry complex of the Permsky Krai for the last years had been used in this research. There had been offered the methods for revealing and determining the criminality level in the sphere of FIC (forest industry complex), including the estimation of the illegal turnover of timber, presented by the carrying out the criteria and the methods of determining the damage of the criminal economic activity of the forest industry complex field to the state. The applying of implements suggested for detecting the crimes in the FIC helps to estimate and sometimes to prevent criminalization in this sphere.
Key words: economic security, forest industry complex, level of criminality, illegal logging, timber, economic crimes, crime traces, organized criminality.